October 1949 Proceedings Magazine: United States Naval Institute

October 1949 Proceedings Magazine: United States Naval Institute

Front Cover, Vulcan's Workshop—Manufacturing Giant Naval Cannon at the U. S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D. C. Official U. S. Navy Photograph. United States Naval Institute Proceedings, October 1949, Vol. 75, No. 10 Whole No. 560. GGA Image ID # 1709acc136

For the Advancement of Professional, Literary, and Scientific Knowledge in the Navy

Contents

  • Sea Power and a National General Staff
    By Lieutenant Colonel J. D. Hittle, U. S. Marine Corps
  • Admiral Yamamoto
    By James A. Field, Jr.
  • Preface to Leadership
    By Herbert G. Telsey
  • Navy Overland Transportation Methods in the Polar Regions
    By George W. Grupp
  • The Historic Flight of the Coral Sea Neptunes
    By Lieutenant Commander M. W. Cagle, U. S. Navy
  • A Challenge for the Line Officer
    By Commander James C. Shaw, U. S. Navy
  • The Shape of Tomorrow's Torpedo
    By Warren Hughes
  • Battleship Banzai!
    By Captain Walter Karig, U. S. Naval Reserve (Rel.), Lieutenant Commander Russell Harris, U. S. Naval Reserve, and Lieutenant Commander Frank A. Manson, U. S. Navy
  • Round-Shot to Rockets
    By Lieutenant Commander Harry C. Allendorfer, U. S. Navy
  • The Washington Navy Yard and U. S. Naval Gun Factory
    (Pictorial Section)
  • Discussions, Comments, Notes
  • Book Reviews
  • Professional Notes
  • Secretary's Notes

The opinions or assertions in the articles are the private ones of the writers, and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Navy Department or the naval service at large.

Illustrations Used

Captured Nazi Officers Bound for Internment Camps in World War II.

1090: Firm Advocates of a National General Staff. Captured Nazi Officers Bound for Internment Camps in World War II. Prussia Developed the Architype of the Supreme General Staff. Official U.S. Coast Guard Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fcdad6e3

The German Navy's Submarine Effort was Hopelessly Handicapped Due to Lack of Adequate Naval Air Reconnaissance.

1095: Helpless Without Air Support of Their Own. The German Navy's Submarine Effort was Hopelessly Handicapped Due to Lack of Adequate Naval Air Reconnaissance. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fd2e946a

Amphibious Warfare, Victorious Weapon of World War II.

1099: Amphibious Warfare, Victorious Weapon of World War II. Untrammeled by Single-Service Concepts, the Planners of U. S. Military Operations in World War II Coordinated the Efforts of Land, Air, and Sea Power. Official U.S. Marine Corps Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fd4f2c89

Pearl Harbor Under Seige, December 7, 1941.

1104: Pearl Harbor Under Seige, December 7, 1941. Author of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Admiral Yamamoto was Pessimistic of Ultimate Victory. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fd8cfdce

1109: Flagship of Victory at Tsushima.

1109: Flagship of Victory at Tsushima. as a Midshipman, Yamamoto Participated in the Crushing Defeat of the Russian Fleet, Bud Did Not Live to See the Even More Crushing Defeat of the Japanese Navy in World War II. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fda48ca9

1114: Soldiers In Training for H-Hour.

1114: Soldiers In Training for H-Hour. Military Drafts Have Long Been Used by European Powers, but It Is Only in the Last Decade That the United States Has Known a Peace-Time Draft. Official U.S. Coast Guard Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fdb8aaaf

1119: Triumphant Crew of a Returning U.S. Submarine.

1119: Triumphant Crew of a Returning U.S. Submarine. Submarine Crews, Like Small Units With Heavy Individual Responsibility, Become Elite Units Through Pride of Accomplishment. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fdd142f1

1122a: Navy Air Transportation in the Artic. Unloading Pipe for the Navy at Point Barrow.

1122a: Navy Air Transportation in the Artic. Unloading Pipe for the Navy at Point Barrow. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fdec0e5a

1122b: Navy Overland Transportation in the Artic. The Wanigan Section of a Tractor-Train.

1122b: Navy Overland Transportation in the Artic. The Wanigan Section of a Tractor-Train. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fded8a62

1125: Greasing a Tractor at Way Below.

1125: Greasing a Tractor at Way Below. Note the Winterized Operator's Cab and the Packed Snow in the Tracks and Rollers. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fe4ad4d4

1126: Bob-Sled Bound for Umiat.

1126: Bob-Sled Bound for Umiat. Stout Runners, Stout Chains, and Stout Coupling Gear are Precautions Against Trail Mishaps. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fe8afac7

1128: Extending the Long Reach of the Navy. Navy Neptune Patrol Bomber Taking off From the Carrier Coral Sea off the Virginia Capes.

1128: Extending the Long Reach of the Navy. Navy Neptune Patrol Bomber Taking off From the Carrier Coral Sea off the Virginia Capes. Insert Map Shows the 4,000 Mile Route Flown Non-Stop From the Virginia Capes to California, Then on to Alaska, and Back to Final Landing in California. a Similar Navy Neptune Holds the World's Record for Non-Stop Distance Flight, 11,236 Miles. Official U. S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fe9ae312

The Confederate Ram Albemarle, Sunk by Another Revolutionary Weapon, the Torpedo.

1132a: New and Revolutionary in Its Time. The Confederate Ram Albemarle, Sunk by Another Revolutionary Weapon, the Torpedo. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fea6c62a

New Concept of World War II. In the Kamikaze and Its Suicide Pilot, the Japanese Developed One of the Deadliest Weapons of World War II.

1132b: New Concept of World War II. In the Kamikaze and Its Suicide Pilot, the Japanese Developed One of the Deadliest Weapons of World War II. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fec100f4

1144: Studies That May Improve Tomorrow's Torpedo. Model Torpedoes Are Hurled at Varying Speeds From the Centrifugal Launcher at the California Institute of Technology. Photograph Courtesy of the California Institute of Technology.

1150: The Yamato, World's Biggest Battleship, in a Peaceful Moment.

1150: The Yamato, World's Biggest Battleship, in a Peaceful Moment. This Photograph Was Found in the Possession of a Japanese Civilian Who Had Kept Its Existence a Secret. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fedbff9c

The Yamato, World's Biggest Battleship, Maneuvers Violently to Avoid Bombs Dropped by the U.S. Navy Carrier Planes During a Raid on the Jap Naval Base on Kure Bay, March 19, 1945.

1153: Prelude to Sinking. The Yamato, World's Biggest Battleship, Maneuvers Violently to Avoid Bombs Dropped by the U.S. Navy Carrier Planes During a Raid on the Jap Naval Base on Kure Bay, March 19, 1945. The Yamato Escaped This Time, but Was Sunk by Carrier Planes Three Weeks Later in the East China Sea. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16fee9f192

Running the Gauntlet of Carrier Plane Bombs. the Yamato, 67,500-Ton Monster, Smokes Amidships From Several Direct Hits Just Before She Was Sunk in the East China Sea, April 7, 1945.

1155: Running the Gauntlet of Carrier Plane Bombs. the Yamato, 67,500-Ton Monster, Smokes Amidships From Several Direct Hits Just Before She Was Sunk in the East China Sea, April 7, 1945. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 16ff01cdd7

Death Throes of the Mighty Yamato. When That Cloud and Smoke Pillar Blew Away, Nothing Was Left of the World's Largest Battleship.

1156: Death Throes of the Mighty Yamato. When That Cloud and Smoke Pillar Blew Away, Nothing Was Left of the World's Largest Battleship. She Was Sunk by U.S. Navy Carrier Planes in the East China Sea, April 7, 1945. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 170070b2e4

The U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D.C. This Enormous Industrial Plant, the Greatest Naval Armament Plant in the World, Is a Long Way Removed From the Few Builds and Marshy Acres of the Nation's First Navy Yard.

1158: The U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D.C. This Enormous Industrial Plant, the Greatest Naval Armament Plant in the World, Is a Long Way Removed From the Few Builds and Marshy Acres of the Nation's First Navy Yard. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 170072627c

Vulcan's Workshop. Just as Vulcan Was the Armorer of the Gods, So the Naval Gun Factory Was Designed and Built Most of the Weapons of the U.S. Navy Through All Its Wars.

1164: Vulcan's Workshop. Just as Vulcan Was the Armorer of the Gods, So the Naval Gun Factory Was Designed and Built Most of the Weapons of the U.S. Navy Through All Its Wars. the Above Picture Shows the Size of Some of the Foundry Equipment of the Gun Factory. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17007e8b8b

In This Picture, an 8-Inch Triple Mount of the Type Used on the Louisville Class of 10,000-Ton Heavy Cruisers Is Being Assembled.

1166: The Erecting Shop at the U.S. Naval Gun Factory Where the Large Guns and Mounts Are Finally Assembled and Tested. In This Picture, an 8-Inch Triple Mount of the Type Used on the Louisville Class of 10,000-Ton Heavy Cruisers Is Being Assembled. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1700d37b3c

The Washington Navy Yard in 1837. The Shiphouse and Sawmill Were Already Washington Landmarks. Note the Old-Style Dome on the Capitol in the Background.

1167a: The Washington Navy Yard in 1837. The Shiphouse and Sawmill Were Already Washington Landmarks. Note the Old-Style Dome on the Capitol in the Background. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1701541756

The Plan and Four Elevations Show the Dry Dock Which President Jefferson Proposed to Construct at the Navy Yard.

1167b: President Jefferson's Dry Dock. The Plan and Four Elevations Show the Dry Dock Which President Jefferson Proposed to Construct at the Navy Yard. The Dry Dock Would Have Held the Entire U.S. Navy at That Time. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17017e22ac

The Experimental Ordnance Test Battery at the Washington Navy Yard in Civil War Times. the Center Gun Is a 11-Inch Dahlgren Similar to the Ones on the Monitor.

1168a: The Experimental Ordnance Test Battery at the Washington Navy Yard in Civil War Times. the Center Gun Is a 11-Inch Dahlgren Similar to the Ones on the Monitor. [Caption From the Original Illustration] Naval Practice Battery, Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. We Present to Our Readers a Sketch of What Was Called the Naval Practice Battery, Where Our Young Gunners Rehearsed Before They Got Into the Terrible Ordeal of Battle. Simple as the Loading and Firing of a Gun May Sound, It Is an Operation Which Tries the Nerves, and Requires the Utmost Nicety of Adjustment. It Is Really and Truly as Much an Act of Science, if Properly Done, as the Most Delicate Surgical Operation. Official US Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 170185c290

The Navy Yard’s First Contact With the Japanese.

1168B: The Navy Yard’s First Contact With the Japanese. The Landing of the First Japanese Diplomatic Mission to the United States at the Navy Yard Pier in 1860. Official US Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1701b3ac01

Return of John H. Surratt, One of Booth’s Accomplices in the Assassination of President Lincoln.

1169a: Return of John H. Surratt, One of Booth’s Accomplices in the Assassination of President Lincoln. All of the Conspirators for a Time Were Confined in Irons on Warships at the Navy Yard. A Drawing of the Prisoner Turnover From the Navy to Civil Authority Appeared as an Engraving in the 9 March 1867 Issue of Harper's Weekly. Artist Andrew McCallum Sketched Surratt, Hands Chained, Stepping From the Swatara's Cutter Into a Crowd of 40 or 50 People Standing on the Pier. GGA Image ID # 1701c962b9

The Tablet at the Burial Place of Col. Ulric Dahlgren’s Leg at the Navy Yard.

1169b: The Tablet at the Burial Place of Col. Ulric Dahlgren’s Leg at the Navy Yard. Col. Dahlgren, Son of the Most Famous Commandant of the Yard, Was Wounded Just After Gettysburg and Was Later Killed in a Daring Raid on Richmond. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1701f38e8e

Built at the Navy Yard in 1898, the David Taylor Ship Model Test Basin Was the First Scientific Apparatus in the United States for Measuring Water Resistance to Ship’s Hulls.

1170a: Built at the Navy Yard in 1898, the David Taylor Ship Model Test Basin Was the First Scientific Apparatus in the United States for Measuring Water Resistance to Ship’s Hulls. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1702007703

One of the Giant Gears for the Panama Canal Locks, Designed and Built at the Washington Navy Yard.

1170b: One of the Giant Gears for the Panama Canal Locks, Designed and Built at the Washington Navy Yard. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1702157585

The 14-Inch Gun of the U. S. Naval Railway Battery Blasts the Germans in World War I.

1171a: The 14-Inch Gun of the U. S. Naval Railway Battery Blasts the Germans in World War I. These Batteries Were Designed and Forged at the Navy Yard. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1706bc57a6

These Large Early-Type Aircraft Bombs, Along With the Catapult, Were Fore-Runners of the Navy Yard’s Many Contributions to Air Warfare.

1171b: These Large Early-Type Aircraft Bombs, Along With the Catapult, Were Fore-Runners of the Navy Yard’s Many Contributions to Air Warfare. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1707330de5

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Board the Presidential Yacht Potomac at the Washington Navy Yard, in 1939, as Guests of President and Mrs. Roosevelt.

1172a: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Board the Presidential Yacht Potomac at the Washington Navy Yard, in 1939, as Guests of President and Mrs. Roosevelt. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17078eb016

The Yard Receives the Body of the Unknown Soldier Returns to the Land for Which He Died.

1172b: The Yard Receives Someone Greater Than the Kings of the Earth When the Body of the Unknown Soldier Returns to the Land for Which He Died. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1707aaec55

Shown Here Is the Present Presidential Yacht, the U.S.S. Williamsburg, at the Yard Pier.

1173a: For Many Years the Presidential Yachts Have Been Berthed and Maintained at the Navy Yard. Shown Here Is the Present Presidential Yacht, the U.S.S. Williamsburg, at the Yard Pier. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1707c08eaf

The President’s Railway Car Is Another Familiar Charge of the Gun Factory.

1173b: The President’s Railway Car Is Another Familiar Charge of the Gun Factory. Special Items of Equipment as Well as Routine Repairs Are Made in the Yard. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1707e43e9c

Tapping a Ladle at the Gun Factory Foundry.

1174a: Tapping a Ladle at the Gun Factory Foundry. Fiery Cascades Fall as the Workman Opens the Tap and the Molten Metal Pours Into the Mold. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1707e6a49d

Giving Equipment the North Pole Test. Gun Factory Products on Ships, Planes, and Submarines Operating in the Far North Must Be Immune to Sub-Zero Temperatures.

1174b: Giving Equipment the North Pole Test. Gun Factory Products on Ships, Planes, and Submarines Operating in the Far North Must Be Immune to Sub-Zero Temperatures. Sign Reads Deep Freeze 140 Degrees Below Zero. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 170811d85c

The Naval Gun Factory’s New Aeroballistics Range and Supersonic Wind Tunnel.

1175a: The Naval Gun Factory’s New Aeroballistics Range and Supersonic Wind Tunnel. in This Pressurized Range for Testing Missile Flight Characteristics, the Only Deviation From an Absolutely Straight Line Is That Caused by the Earth’s Curvature. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1708a32e1d

1175b: The New Martin Mauler Carries Terrific Firepower in Her Array of Bombs, Rockets, and Machine Guns. Components of Each of the Weapons Carried Were Developed at the Naval Gun Factory.

1175b: The New Martin Mauler Carries Terrific Firepower in Her Array of Bombs, Rockets, and Machine Guns. Components of Each of the Weapons Carried Were Developed at the Naval Gun Factory. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1708a3922e

U. S. Marines in France, World War I.

1176: U. S. Marines in France, World War I. In Earlier Days, the British Royal Marines Served in Land Warfare Similar to U. S. Marines. Today, Except for the Royal Marine Commandos, They Serve Ashore Mainly as a Peacetime Emergency Police Force. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17091ca0c5

Major Metropolitan Area with Concentrated Industries and Population Centers.

1180: How Would You Decentralize This? It Is Estimated That It Would Cost a Billion Dollars a Year for 10 or 20 Years to Decentralize Our Concentrated Industries and Population Centers. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17092463a8

Transports Crossing the Atlantic in World War II.

1186: Transports Crossing the Atlantic in World War II. the U. S. Army’s Transport Fleet of 320 Ocean-Going Vessels Has Been Transferred to the U. S. Navy, Which Will Operate Them in Combination With Its Own Transports Under the Designation of Military Sea Transportation Service. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17094eea79

Seen Across the Flight Deck of a U. S. Carrier Is the City and Harbor of Hong Kong.

1193: Hong Kong, Strategic British Outpost in China. Seen Across the Flight Deck of a U. S. Carrier Is the City and Harbor of Hong Kong. Great Britain Is Steadily Strengthening Her Garrison Here. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1709640dbc

U. S. Marines Storming a Beach in the Pacific, Under Support of Marine Dive-Bombers.

U. S. Marines Storming a Beach in the Pacific, Under Support of Marine Dive-Bombers. The U. S. Army, Unhappy Over Its Own Lack of Tactical Air Support, Points Out That the Marines Enjoy the Comforting Tactical Support of 21 Squadrons for Every Two Divisions. Official U.S. Marine Corps Photograph. GGA Image ID # 17097344d1

Scene Aboard the Coast Guard Cadet Training Ship Eagle.

Scene Aboard the Coast Guard Cadet Training Ship Eagle. Official U.S. Coast Guard Photograph. GGA Image ID # 1709a01d79

Published monthly at 450 Ahnaip St., Menasha, Wis.
Executive, Editorial and Business Offices, U. S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, Md.
Advertising Department, Suite 710, 2000 Connecticut Ave., N.V., Washington, D.C.
Entered as second-class matter at the post-office at Menasha, Wis., April 4, 1922, and at the post-office at Annapolis, Md., under Act of August 4, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1919, authorized March 13, 1922. Membership dues (including PROCEEDINGS), $2.00 a year.
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UNITED STATES NAVAL INSTITUTE PROCEEDINGS
October, 1949
Edited by CAPTAIN W. G. COOPER, U. S. NAVY
Managing EditOr—COMMANDER ROY DE S. HORN, U. S. NAVY (RET.)

Associate Editors

CAPTAIN JOSEPH M. P. WRIGHT, U. S. NAVY
COMMANDER C. P. LEMIEUX, U. S. NAVAL RESERVE (INACTIVE)
LIEUTENANT COMMANDER H. 0. WERNER,
U. S. NAVAL RESERVE (INACTIVE)

United States Naval Institute

Publication Office: Menasha, Wisconsin
Editorial and Business Office: Annapolis, Maryland
Advertising Department: 2000 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Washington, D.C.

Copyright, 1949, by U. S. Naval Institute

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