Naval History - October 1996 - The Titanic Sinking
October: "How Did the Titanic Really Sink"; "Hurricane Uncovers 18th C. Wreck" - Hurricane Andrew unearths HMS Fowey
UNITED STATES NAVAL INSTITUTE September / October 1996 Volume 10 • Number 5
ilf the sinking of the Titanic is arguably the most analyzed maritime disaster in history.
In this issue, two underwater forensic experts and naval architects conclude that the ship sank because steel that had been weakened by low water temperatures succumbed to the weight of water rushing through a 12-footsquare hole in the bow.
In conjunction, we talk to Robert Ballard—Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution scientist, television host, and leader of the expedition that discovered the wreck of the Titanic—about the proposed raising of a hull section from the ship.
At the height of hurricane season, retired Commander Edward P. (The Big E) Stafford relates how a hurricane bested his squadron in 1950, and writer Eric Adams details how Hurricane Andrew uncovered a sunken ship in 1992.
Also in this issue is the enthralling tale of an Italian Navy lieutenant whose courage and quick thinking saved Italian lives after his country's Armistice with the Allies in 1943.
Naval History, ISSN 1042-1920, is published bimonthly by the U.S Naval Institute, 2062 Generals Highway, Annapolis, Maryland 21401 (editorial offices are located at U.S. Naval Academy, Preble Hall, 118 Maryland Avenue, Annapolis, MD 214025035, fax no. 410-269-7940).
The U. S. Naval Institute is a private, self-supporting, nonprofit professional society, which publishes Proceedings magazine as a forum for the sea services, and professional books.
The Naval Institute is not part of the U.S. Government. The opinions and assertions herein are the authors'. Second class postage paid at Annapolis, Maryland, and at additional mailing offices.
Copyright 1996, U.S. Naval Institute. Copyright is not claimed for editorial material in the public domain.
Home page address: www.usni.org.
How Did the Titanic Really Sink?' 15
By William H. Garzke, Jr., and David K. Brown, Royal Corps of Naval Engineers
Naval architects torpedo the theory that a 300-foot gash sank the ship in 1912.
`It's a Carnival' 20
An interview with Robert Ballard
The undersea explorer fires a shot against current Titanic preservation efforts.
`At Last We Were Safe' 24
By Admiral Giovanni Ciccolo , Italian Navy (Retired) Translated by Eunice Rice and Enrico Patti
In 1943, one Italian officer saved five submarines from the Germans, repatriated imprisoned Italians, and secured passage home for 30 bed-ridden countrymen.
The Bridge Gets a New Look 29
Drawings by Colonel Charles Waterhouse, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
An eminent artist embellishes a classic of naval literature, The Bridge at Dong Ha.
Good-Bye, Mare Island 30
By Rich Pedroncelli
A historic naval landmark falls victim to military downsizing and consolidation.
Hurricane Uncovers 18th-Century Wreck 32
By Eric Adams
After Hurricane Andrew devastated south Florida, its only redeeming value may have been its unearthing of HMS Fowey, a 250-year-old British man-of-war:
The Coast Guard Flies in Vietnam 36
By Commander Doug Kroll, CHC, U.S. Naval Reserve
Coast Guard exchange pilots also risked it all in search-and-rescue missions.
The Hurricane Hunted 40
By Commander Edward P. Stafford, U.S. Navy (Retired)
A storm named Charlie got the best of the Navy's Hurricane Hunters in 1950.
A Blind Eye Toward the Slave Trade 43
By Lieutenant Pegram Harrison, U.S. Naval Reserve (Retired)
Even though the Navy captured the slave ship Excellent in 1850, its record of otherwise suppressing the slave trade was abysmal.
Marine's Best Friend 47
By Cyril J. O'Brien
Some of World War II's most gallant warfighters were of the canine persuasion.
Looking Back 4 Book Reviews 53 Salty Talk 59
In Contact 6 Books of Interest 55 Historic Fleets 60
Museum Report 51 Naval History News 56 Reunions 62
Cover: Ken Marschall's paintings of the final hours of the Titanic appeared in Robert Ballard's The Discovery of the Titanic (1987). This image depicts the ship as she must have looked at 0205 on 15 April 1912. For more on the Titanic, see pages 15-23.
TheTitanic Sinking: A Naval Architect's View
N DUAL HISTORY
UNITED STATES NAVAL INSTITUTE