Where Do We Go From Here ? This Is The Real Dope
William Brown Meloney, WWI Discharge Guide Booklet, Where Do We Go From Here? - This is the real dope. © 1919, Thomsen-Ellis Press, Baltimore. 60 Pages.
- The Uniform
- The Red Chevron
- Clothing and Equipment
- The Victory Metal
- Employment outside of the Military
- Educational Opportunities
If you get stuck about anything; if you feel, after waiting a reasonable time, that some department of the Government has overlooked you, or is unjustly impatient with you—is not giving you a square deal—do not hesitate to write to Col. Arthur Woods, War Department, Washington, D. C.
This is your book. Don't let go of it until you are back on your old job or a better one.
Even then it will be worth while to tuck it away in an inside pocket of your Cits or in your own corner of the house, for, although you will be out of the service, still you will wish to know just where to send your War Risk Insurance premiums each month or how and when to swing or convert your insurance at the proper time, or perhaps get hold of those elusive Liberty Bonds, or advise an old Buddie or Gob what is best to do; for instance, where to look for a job, or get a line on his back pay. All of that's in it, and beaucoup besides.
It is meant to be your "Handy Andy." It was prepared especially for you, by direction of Col. Arthur Woods, Assistant to the Secretary of War. Its single purpose is to bring to you in the simplest, quickest, and most accurate form the things which every man who has served in The Great War must know to put him in touch again with God's Country.
In some respects the information in the paragraphs on "The Uniform," "The Red Chevron," "Clothing and Equipment," "The Victory Medal," "Decorations," "Must I Be Discharged Immediately?" "How May a Discharge Be Hastened?"
"Discharge of Officers," and "Retention of Officers," is not strictly applicable to former Navy men. Where the information given does not meet your needs, you are advised to communicate with the nearest Naval Recruiting Officer, the Commandant of the Naval District in which you reside, or with the Navy Department, Washington, D. C., asking for the information you require.
Although the jurisdiction of the War Department and the Navy Department comes to an end, of course, the instant you are discharged, they wish both officers and men to feel that their interest in them will not cease. It is the Departments' desire to assist every man leaving the services to locate himself again in civil life, and to play the game of peace as successfully and victoriously as he played the sternest of all games.
The spirit of this desire is the same as that which finds expression on the part of the individual to whose lot it may fall to put out his hand to an old bunkie or shipmate and do the thing or say the word needed to help him toward success. It is the spirit which springs eternally from the comradeship of arms.
In order to make the War Department's desire a vital thing during the period of reabsorption of troops, the Secretary of War appointed Col.Woods his assistant, and at the request of the Acting Secretary of the Navy, Col. Woods and the forces at his disposal will do for the man who is taking off the Blues or the Greens the things which are being done for him who is laying aside the 0. D.
When Am I Going To Be Discharged?
It is the policy of the War Department to discharge all enlisted personnel at the earliest possible moment, excepting those who enlisted in the old Regular Army prior to April 1,1917, and those physically incapacitated by wounds of battle, accident, or disease. The physically incapacitated will be sent direct from the ports of debarkation to appropriate service hospitals.
Discharges will be accomplished at the demobilization centre nearest your home. According to the Chief of Staff, it should not take more than 48 hours in the case of any individual soldier arrived from overseas at a demobilization camp, with his papers and records in proper form, to effect his discharge.
Men without service records, under Circular 148, War Department, 1918, may be discharged on supplementary service records based on their affidavits.
If any organization drawn from a particular locality, having arrived for demobilization, wishes to parade, it is the policy of the War Department to authorize the parade and help in every possible way; but when this would involve remaining in the service for weeks awaiting the arrival of other units of the same division, parading must be voluntary.
The Money End of It
On the day an officer or enlisted man is discharged, these things happen to him financially:—
His pay and any allotments he may have made, cease. Allowances to dependent relatives, however, will continue for one month thereafter.
If he is from overseas, he resumes the payment of postage.
He receives a bonus of $60.00 when "honorably" discharged.
He is paid a travel allowance of 5c a mile from the place of his discharge to the place where he was inducted into the service, or to his actual bona fide home or residence. Enlisted men discharged between November 11, 1918, and February 28, 1919, and later, who received 3 1/2 cents per mile travel allowance, are now allowed the difference between 3 1/2 cents and 5 cents, or 1 1/2 cents a mile, according to a decision of the Comptroller of the Treasury dated April 17, 1919. Application should be made to
The Zone Finance Officer, Lemon Building, Washington, D. C.
Write in the lower left corner of the envelope:
Attention Additional Travel Pay Section.
An officer's travel allowance is computed at 4c a mile from the place of discharge to the place of acceptance of his commission, or to the place of his original entry into service.
In addition to this travel allowance, officers and enlisted men are entitled to purchase a ticket home for two-thirds of the regular fare, providing that the purchase is made and the journey begun within 24 hours after being discharged. In the case of a draft man, this place is where the Local Board which inducted him "for immediate military service" was located, and not the place from which he was summoned to appear before the Local Board.
In the case of a National Guardsman it is the rendezvous where his organization was mustered into the Federal Service.
Your War-Risk Insurance
Hold on to your insurance, and pay the premiums when due, no matter what sacrifice this may entail. There is nothing which makes for self-respect so much as a consciousness that one is insured. There is no greater boon in our modern civilization than life insurance. The man who can't afford to die can't afford to live.
The Government's plan of insurance and compensation, with its provisions covering disability, was devised to take the place of a pension system. Therefore don't you, and don't let any pal of yours with whom you may have any influence, drop insurance.
Your present insurance is what is known as one-year renewable term insurance.
It is an emergency war-time measure. In recognition of your services, and of the necessity of providing for your dependents, the Government, instead of charging you a higher rate of premium than civilians, provided and provides insurance at a lower rate than a civilian could possibly obtain it. This is possible because the Government charges the policyholders nothing for administration, and bears the extra mortality costs.
In other words, the rate which you have been paying for your insurance from the day you entered the military or naval establishment until this time, is a net peace-time rate. This one-year renewable term insurance may be carried by you for five years after the declaration of peace, with the privilege of converting it at any time during that period, without having to undergo a medical examination, into one of the so-called permanent forms.
Uncle Sam is willing to accept you as a risk on the basis of what you were when you entered the service, no matter what may have happened to you since. There are six of these forms:-
- A. Ordinary Life Policy
- B. 20-Payment Life Policy
- C. 30-Payment Life Policy
- D. 20-Year Endowment
- E. 30-Year Endowment
- F. Endowment policy maturing at age 62
The premium rates for the permanent forms are shown in the following tables:
|Age||Ordinary Life||20-Payment Life|
|Age||20-Yr. Endowment||30-Yr. Endowment|
This permanent insurance will be written and carried by the Government at rates considerably lower than regular life insurance companies granting similar benefits. The premium rates are net rates based upon the American Experience Table of Mortality, with interest at 3 1/2'%, figured upon a monthly basis.
Expenses of administration are paid by the Government, and are not charged against the insurance, thereby granting the insured a net rate. The insurance is incontestable for any reason from the date of issue. It stands as written. Only you can void it by failing to pay the premium when due. No creditor, no tax collector, no court can touch it.
You may designate as beneficiary only a spouse, child, grandchild, brother, sister, parent, or grandparent. At any time a new beneficiary within this class may be designated. If you have not yet named a beneficiary in your insurance policy, and you should die without naming one, your insurance benefit will go to those in the permitted class who are entitled by the law of your State to inherit your personal property.
These policies have a loan and cash value beginning at the end of the first year, and loans are obtainable thereon up to 94% of the cash value.
Make no move toward converting your insurance into any one of the foregoing permanent forms without having the fullest advice from The Bureau of War Risk Insurance. The Bureau will be ready to begin writing the permanent forms after June 1, 1919. Give no heed to Guard House or Sea Lawyers who may try to make you believe that they know all about it.
You have five years in which to come to a decision in this matter, but you have only 30 days in which to pay a premium when due. Don't forget that.
Your premium on your present insurance is due on the first of the month following your discharge: and although you are entitled to 30 days' grace following the due date, try your utmost to pay each month in advance.
The best means of transmitting your premiums is by postal or express money order, made payable to the Treasurer of the United States. Checks are all right, too, but not everybody has a checking account. Checks also should be made payable to the Treasurer of the United States. Do not, however, make the mistake of sending your premiums to the Treasurer of the United States. Address the envelope thus:-
Premium Receipt Section,
Bureau of War Risk Insurance,
Washington, D. C.
It should be obvious why the transmission of premiums by means of postal or express money orders is recommended. You get an immediate receipt for your money. Always, in making a remittance, be sure to give your full name, rank, organization, army serial number, the number of your insurance certificate, if you know it, and the month for which you are paying.
If you have failed to pay your premiums since discharge, don't wait to catch up; buy a money or express order immediately, and enclose it with a signed request that your insurance be reinstated.
However, no matter what happens, don't lose your nerve. A man's not dead until he's six feet under. Stick out your jaw and write The Bureau of War Risk Insurance, and you'll perhaps find out that it's really more generous than its austere legal words indicate.
Re-enlistment will give opportunity for a reinstatement of lapsed insurance.
A discharged soldier, sailor or marine who failed to take any insurance at the time of enlistment or induction and who has gone back to civil life again, may take out insurance upon re-enlistment.
The one-year renewable war risk or temporary insurance has no surrender value. If you let it go by the board, you get nothing back. The cake has been eaten.
Your present premium rates will hold good under any circumstances until July 1, 1919, and it will hold good until July I, 1920, if you took out your insurance after July I, 1918. Thereafter, in paying premiums, take into account whether your increased age since the date the insurance was issued calls for an increase of premium.
This also applies to policyholders abroad as well as at home. Compute premiums from the following table by multiplying the rate for a given age by the number of thousands for which you are insured:
MONTHLY PREMIUMS FOR EACH $1,000 OF INSURANCE
[Each $1,000 of insurance is payable in installments of $5.75 per month for 240 months; but if the insured is totally and permanently disabled and lives longer than 240 months, the payments will be continued as long as he lives and is so disabled.]
|Age||Monthly Premium||Age||Monthly Premium|
All policies to be issued by the Government will, like the war-time form, contain a disability clause.
If at any time while these policies are in full force, you should become permanently disabled, you will receive a monthly installment of $5.75 for each thousand dollars of insurance, as long as the disability lasts, and throughout your life-time, if the disability continues.
The loss of both arms, both legs or both eyes may be defined as a total and permanent disability.
Disability benefits will be paid, whether the disability occurred before or after your discharge. Do not be confused as to the disability benefit to which you are entitled under your insurance policy, and compensation.
Compensation does not mean disability—nor disability, compensation. In other words, even if a soldier or sailor is without a cent of Government insurance, he is entitled to receive compensation for injury or disease which prevents his earning as much as he did before he went into the Army or Navy, unless such injury or disease was caused by his own misconduct or not in the line of duty, and everybody who has worn the 0. D., the Blue, or the Green knows the meaning of "not in the line of duty." Dismissal or dishonorable discharge cancels any and all rights to compensation.
Applications for compensation should be made direct to the Compensation Division of The Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C., and it is up to the interested parties to make this application. although the Government has endeavored to connect with every possible applicant before discharging him.
The way to begin an application for compensation is to write to The Bureau of War Risk Insurance, and simply ask that you be sent a copy of Form 526, the title of which is "Application of Person Disabled in and Discharged from Service."
On the filing of an application for compensation, an investigation takes place to develop all of the facts.
Compensation may be obtained in a sum as high as $100 monthly, for a man permanently blind or bedridden; and this would be in addition to his insurance benefits, which in the case of a blind or bedridden man insured for $10,000, would be $57.50 monthly.
In case a man should discover within one year after separation from the service that he has sustained an injury or contracted disease in the line of duty in active service which may result in disability or death, but which did not disable him and of which he had no knowledge at the time of separation from the service, he should communicate the fact immediately to the Compensation Division of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, giving his full name, Army serial number, if an enlisted man, rank or grade, and organization; the date of his discharge or separation from the service; and, if possible, the date of his injury or disability.
He should at the same time request to be furnished a certificate to the effect that at the time of his separation from the service he was suffering frcm a wound, injury or disease which is likely to result in death or disability. This certificate must be obtained within one year from the date of separation from the service, and in order to obtain it the man must submit to a medical examination by a physician designated by the Bureau of War Risk Insurance.
No compensation shall be payable for death or disability which does not occur prior to or within one year from date of separation from the service.
No compensation is payable for disability unless claim is filed within five years after the date of separation from the service.
In order to procure compensation for disability the claimant shall submit to examination by a medical officer of the United States. If he refuses to submit to such examination, his right to compensation ceases.
The Civil Relief Act provides that The Bureau of War Risk Insurance may aid members of the military establishment in protecting private insurance policies and fraternal benefit memberships from lapses due to non-payment of premium or dues while the holder thereof is in military service. Those who have taken advantage of this provision must not forget to pay these back premiums to the insurance company, with accrued interest thereon, within one year after discharge, or if already discharged, within one year after the proclamation of peace.
The law providing for the payment of a bonus of $60 to every discharged soldier, sailor and marine, including officers, was not adopted until February 24, 1919.
Those discharged from the Army prior to this time are nevertheless entitled to the bonus, and if it has not been paid, they may obtain it by applying to
The Zone Finance Officer, Miscellaneous Accounts Branch, Additional Pay Section, Lemon Building, Washington, D. C.
Such applications must contain:—
- ALL discharge certificates (use registered mail) given to the soldier during the period of the War, or orders for discharge or relief if no certificate was issued, but both certificates and order, if both were issued, the papers bearing indorsement of final payment being required;
- Statement of ALL military service since April 6, 1917, showing place and date of reporting at first military station;
- Address, plainly written, preferably typewritten, to which check is to be sent.
If, however, the discharged officers or enlisted men do not desire to forward their original discharge certificates to the Zone Finance Officer, Washington, D. C., they may present their original discharge certificate to the nearest recruiting officer of the Army, who will make a certified copy and mail it to that office. The original discharge will be returned to the soldier.
The bonus will not be paid:—
- To any person who, though appointed or inducted into the military or naval forces on or prior to November 11, 1918, had not reported for duty at his station on or prior to such date.
- To any person who has already received one month's pay under the provisions of Section 9 of the Act entitled "An Act to Authorize the President to Increase Temporarily the Military Establishment of the United States," approved May 18, 1917; or
- To any person who is entitled to retired pay; or
- To the heirs or legal representatives of any person entitled to any payment under this section who has died or may die before receiving such payment. In the case of any person who subsequent to separation from the service as above specified has been appointed or inducted into the military or naval forces of the United States, and has been or is again separated from service as above specified, only one payment of $60 shall be made.
When settlement is made, all personal papers will be returned to the applicant with check. No further correspondence is necessary, except to advise of change in address of the applicant. No other disbursing officer is authorized to pay claims covered by this paragraph.
If you are a discharged sailor or in an inactive duty status and have not received your bonus, make application to The Disbursing Officer, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. Original Discharge Papers must accompany all applications.
Marines will apply to The Paymaster, U. S. Marine Corps, Washington, D. C. They may forward their original discharge or order of release or a certified copy thereof.
Troops arriving from overseas for discharge will hear a lot of disconcerting guff about civilian government employees being paid $240 bonus upon their separation from public employment.
It's only guff. The Congress increased the salaries of all Government workers receiving less than $1,200 a year by $5 a month for 1918, $10 a month for 1919, and $20 a month for 1920, in order to enable them to cope with the war-time cost of living. The law dated this increased compensation to begin from our entrance into the war. Only those who have served in the military or naval services are entitled to a bonus. Hand this to the Guard House and Sea Lawyers, who know everything.
If any pay is coming to you, you may obtain it at the station of discharge, although your service record has been lost or is missing. Circular No. 148, War Department, Washington, March 27, 1919, authorizes commanding officers to pay soldiers on the personal affidavit of the soldier that so much is due him. Be careful, if you have occasion to make any of these affidavits, about every comma and period that goes into them.
If you are already out of the service, and any back pay is due you, you may obtain it by filing an application with The Director of Finance, Discharged Enlisted Men's Pay Branch, Munitions Building, Washington, D. C.
Such applications must state:—
- When, where and how much you were last paid.
- How much is claimed due.
- When and where you were discharged.
- The name of your organization.
- Your rank, grade and serial number.
- Any change in status since last paid.
Discharged sailors, applying for back pay, must file their claims with The Auditor for the Navy Department, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. Discharged marines will apply to The Paymaster, U. S. Marine Corps. A statement of facts corresponding to those described in the foregoing paragraph is necessary.
Allotments to Dependents
If an enlisted man is informed prior to discharge that no payments whatever have been made upon his Class A or Class B allotments, let him consult his organization commander immediately, and request compliance with Circular No. 63, War Department, Washington, February 6, 1919.
In the case of a man discharged prior to February 6, 1919, he should write to the Allotment and Allowance Division, The Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C., setting forth the following facts:
- First, middle and last name. (Print 'em.)
- Rank and organization at time allotment was made
- Army serial number.
- Name of allottee.
- Address of allottee. (Past and present.)
- Kind of allotment. (If Class B give relationship.)
- Amount of allotment.
- Total amount deducted from pay on account of allotment reckoned to include date of discharge.
- Date allotment became effective.
- Date of discharge.
- Future address of enlisted man.
- Whether the one making the allotment claimed exemption from compulsory allotment.
- Whether the one to whom the allotment was made has received any payment at all, and when.
In the case of the non-payment of a Class E (non-compulsory) allotment, present the foregoing facts in writing to The Zone Finance Officer, Allotment Branch, Washington, D. C.
It takes the Bureau of War Risk Insurance about a month to investigate and settle claims. Payment is ordinarily made by check.
Whether a man remains in or gets out of the service will not affect the expedition of claims falling within this category.
Officers who have allotments, or who are responsible for the certification of final payrolls or final statements of enlisted men, are responsible for the rendition to the Zone Finance Office, and to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Washington, D. C., of the proper discontinuance reports. Full instructions covering such discontinuance are given in Circular 85, W. D., 1918.
In all matters affecting allotments made by sailors to banks and trust companies inquiries should be directed to The Disbursing Officer, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Navy Allotment Section, Navy Department, Wash.. ington, D. C. Marines must direct inquiries to The Paymaster, U. S. Marine Corps, Washington, D. C.
Those Liberty Bonds
Liberty Bonds purchased under the monthly allotment system may be obtained from The Zone Finance Officer, Allotment Branch, Bond Section, Munitions Building, Washington, D. C. This is the only place to request delivery, either in person or by letter.
A bond purchaser may designate any address for the delivery of his bond or bonds. He may designate any third person, bank or individual, to receive his bond or bonds. One whose discharge from the service takes place prior to the completion of full payment of allotments may obtain his bond or bonds by sending a postal money order for the amount due to The Zone Finance Officer, Washington, D. C.
Installments will not be accepted. If he does not wish to do this, he has the right to decline acceptance of his bond or bonds, and receive a refund on his final payroll or final statement of all he has paid. Thus far the Government has fixed no time limit within which he shall do one or the other. Nevertheless it is advisable to clear up the transaction at the earliest possible moment.
When allotments have been made to private banks or trust companies, no refund will be made on final payrolls. Arrangements in such cases must be made with the banks or trust companies as to completion of payments or the settlement of accounts.
All of the foregoing applies to sailors and marines except that they do business with the Disbursing Officer, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Liberty Loan Section, Navy Department, Washington, D. C., and not with The Zone Finance Officer.
If you have not rendered an Income Tax Return for the calendar year 1918 to the Collector of the District in which you claim your legal residence, you should do so at once, provided your income exceeds the exemptions as authorized by law.
The military and naval exemption is $3,500. This applies only to salary or compensation in any form from the United States during the present war For active service in the military or naval forces. The personal exemption, which is additional to the military and naval exemption, is $1000 for a single person; $2000 for a married person. In addition, a further exemption of $200 is allowed for each dependent person under 18 years of age, incapable of self-support, and receiving his chief support from the taxpayer.
If the net income exceeds the exemptions specified above, i. e., $3500 plus $1000 for a single parson; $3500 plus $2000 for a married person, you should use reasonable diligence after your arrival from overseas in filing your return, which should be accompanied with remittance of your tax. By reasonable diligence is meant—not loafing on the job.
An affidavit to the effect that you have been absent from the United States in the military or naval service must accompany your return. During the calendar year of 1917 there was no class exemption for those in the military or naval service, but only the personal exemption of $1000 for unmarried and $2000 for married persons.
The foregoing applies to all returning to the United States prior to the proclamation by the President of the declaration of peace. All who remain abroad in the military or naval service must file a return within ninety days after proclamation by the President of the end of the war with Germany.
For failing to make return within the specified time, there is a penalty of $1000 and in addition 25 per cent of the amount of the tax due.
If it is your desire to go home in uniform, it is your privilege to do so, under full grant of an act of the Congress. You may wear your issue uniform as long as it hangs together if you wish. It is yours. But do not let a minute pass, after being discharged, until you have sewn on, or had sewn on, a red chevron, point up, midway between the elbow and the shoulder, on the left sleeve.
The wearing of any gold, silver, or metal device indicating length of service is forbidden. Only regulation service chevrons and collar insignia are authorized by law and regulations. Wound and service chevrons. for service in any of the Allied Armies, are included in that authorization. Can all camouflage.
Remember in wearing the uniform, that all of its privileges are yours, with none of the restraints. You are a civilian. There is no law or regulation or tradition requiring you to salute an officer. But so long as the 0. D., or the Navy Blue or the Marine Green covers your body, it should be your pride, as one with a military training and as a soldier who participated in The Great War, to be courteous.
The man in uniform of necessity stands out. His failures in the courtesies of life are marked, where those of a civilian would pass unchallenged. So do not fail to do those things while in uniform which you were and will be so punctilious in doing in civilian garb. Fail not to be conscious of the fact that your country, your fellow-citizens, and your own home folk, are very proud of you, and justly so. Be proud of the job you've done. There's a reason.
U. S. N. R. F.
Bureau of Navigation circular letter No. 237-18, General Order No. 437, provides that members in the Naval Reserve force honorably discharged from the service, or relieved from active duty, will be permitted to wear the uniform of their respective ranks, grades and ratings for a period not exceeding three months after such discharge or release from active duty.
They may, however, wear the unform at drills or meetings which they attend as members of a Reserve Force organization when such meetings are called by proper authority, and at ceremonies such as parades, Reserve Force conventions and memorial services which they attend as members of the Naval Reserve Force.
"They shall keep the prescribed uniform outfit in good condition and shall wear the same when proceeding from their homes to place of duty when called into active duty upon mobilization, or for training in times of peace, and when returning to their homes after release from such duty."
All released members of the Naval Reserve Force are cautioned that they still belong to that Force, and that they are required to keep the Commandant of the Naval District in which they reside informed of thei address in order that he may communicate with them officially, should circumstances require it. Following are the geographical limits of the various Naval Districts and the Commandants' addresses:
EIGHTH NAVAL DISTRICT—The remainder of Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas and Oklahoma.
Headquarters—Naval Station, New Orleans, La.
NINTH, TENTH AND ELEVENTH DISTRICTS—The part of New York not in the Third District, the northwest corner of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
Headquarters—Training Station, Great Lakes, Ill.
TWELFTH NAVAL DISTRICT—California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico.
Headquarters—Sheldon Building, San Francisco, Cal.
THIRTEENTH NAVAL DISTRICT—Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon.
Headquarters—Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash.
FOURTEENTH NAVAL DISTRICT—Territory of Hawaii.
Headquarters—Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
FIFTEENTH NAVAL DISTRICT—The Canal Zone.
Headquarters—Balboa, Canal Zone.
SIXTEENTH NAVAL DISTRICT—The Philippine Islands.
Headquarters—Cavite, Philippine Islands.
Uniform Regulations for U. S. N.
An enlisted man in the regular Navy, who has been honorably discharged from the service, may wear his uniform from place of discharge to his home within three months after the date of such discharge.
FIRST NAVAL DISTRICT—All of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and the part of Rhode Island lying east of a line drawn north from Point Judith, including Narragansett Bay.
Headquarters—Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.
SECOND NAVAL DISTRICT—Has been abolished and its territory divided between the First and Third Districts.
THIRD NAVAL DISTRICT—The parHeadquarters—Navalot included in the First District, all of Connecticut, all of New York lying east of a line starting from the intersection of the 45th parallel of latitude with the St. Lawrence River and running southwesterly through Syracuse and Ithaca (including those cities), and the part of New Jersey lying north of a line connecting Trenton and Barnegat.
Headquarters-29th Street and Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
FOURTH NAVAL DISTRICT—All of Pennsylvania except a small part bordering on Lake Erie. the south part of New Jersey, all of Delaware. and a small section of Maryland lying north of Assateague Island.
Headquarters—Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa.
FIFTH NAVAL DISTRICT—Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and all of North Carolina lying north of a line drawn west from New River Inlet.
Headquarters—Naval Operating Base. Norfolk, Va.
SIXTH NAVAL DISTRICT—The remainder of North Carolina, South Carolina. Georgia, and the small portion of Florida lying north of Jacksonville (including that city).
Headquarters—Navy Yard, Charleston, S. C.
SEVENTH NAVAL DISTRICT—The peninsula of Florida, including the part of the State south of Jacksonville and east of Tampa (including Tampa, but excluding Jacksonville).
ileadquarters—Naval Station, Key West, Fla.
The Red Chevron
The red chevron is the sign that you have been honorably discharged ; that you have passed from the military to the civil jurisdiction. It will save your being fussed by P. G.'s and M. P.'s, but it conveys no right to you to fuss them. The red chevron is prescribed to be worn by discharged officers and enlisted men as a recognition of duties performed in the service of their country. It also must be worn by discharged officers who accept commissions in the Officers' Reserve Corps, until called to active duty.
Moreover, it is unlawful, under the National Defense Act, for the uniform to be worn by either discharged officers or enlisted men, without this distinctive mark, and an offender renders himself liable to prosecution and, upon conviction, to punishment by a fine not exceeding $300, or by imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
A -free issue of three red chevrons, one for the blouse, one for the overcoat, and one for the 0. D. shirt, will be made to all enlisted personnel. Discharged officers will find a supply on sale by the Quartermaster at all demobilization camps.
As an honorably discharged soldier wearing the red chevron, you are entitled to buy a drink, but, remembering the Buds and Gobs still in the service who are not civilians, do not buy too many.
"Soldiers and sailors discharged can make $10 a day. Apply Hotel , Room 15."
That is a sample of advertisements appearing in the Help Wanted columns in most any big city.
Don't let any Bud or Gob you know fall for that sort of stuff. The big idea behind it is to exploit the uniform, to get hold of some fellow who, for the moment, may be down on his luck, and send him out panhandling the public with the kit of a street fakir. The Hun Cooties who think up these things wouldn't give a man in Cits a drink of water.
It's an empty sleeve or trouser leg or decoration or service chevron they wish to commercialize—the pals sleeping in Flanders fields and in the Argonne—the uniform they want to sell in the form of patent lead pencils or badges or war histories or catch-asucker gimcracks.
Remember that the 0. D., the Blues and the Greens are as sacred as the flag itself. You and the Buds and Gobs who can't come back have made it so. Dealing with the Hun Cooties is up to you. You know the way—many ways.
Clothing and Equipment : date and place of his discharge or furlough to the Reserve, and certifying that none of the articles applied for were retained by him at the time of his discharge or furlough, or if retained that they have been restored to the Government.
Circular No. 166, War Department, Washington, April 2, 1919, provides that the following articles may be retained by enlisted men upon discharge, as their own: a. 1 oversea cap (for all enlisted men who have had service overseas) or, 1 hat and 1 hat cord (for all other enlisted men). b. I olive drab shirt. c. 1 woolen service coat and ornaments. Officers and enlisted men who have returned the gas masks and helmets may make similar application to the same source, and a reissue will be made, if helmets and masks are available.
d. I pair woolen breeches. e. 1 pair of shoes and laces. f. 1 pair canvas or spiral leggins (canvas if available). g. 1 waist belt. h. I slicker. i. 1 overcoat. j. 2 suits underwear. k. 4 pairs stockings. I. 1 pair gloves. m. 1 gas mask and helmet (for all officers and enlisted men to whom they were issued overseas). n. 1 set toilet articles, consisting of hair brush, comb, tooth brush, shaving brush, razor, small steel mirror, and two towels (if in possession of soldier at time of discharge). o. 1 barrack bag. p. 3 scarlet chevrons (one each for blouse, coat and 0. D. shirt), to be sewn on uniform prior to discharge, when practicable.
Purchases from Government
If discharged in summer, read cotton 0. D. for woolen in the foregoing list. Supply officers are authorized to sell to enlisted men now in the service or about to leave the service, at prices designated by the Director of Purchases and Storage, any articles of clothing or equipment except the following: Coats, breeches, overcoats, caps, ornaments, hat cords.
All knit or worsted articles, such as sweaters, mits, helmets and mufflers, issued to you through the Red Cross, belong to you. The Government will not sell small arms of any kind to anybody outside of the Services.
Any enlisted man who served in the United States Army, during the present war, honorably discharged or furloughed to the Reserve since April 6, 1917, who has restored to the Government any of the above articles, or to whom for any reason they were never issued, may make application for such articles to The Domestic Distribution Branch, Office of the Director of Storage, Washington, D. C., whereupon similar clothing and uniform in kind and value as near as may be will be returned to him.
Such an application must state sizes required, and must be accompanied by an affidavit made before any civil or military officer authorized to administer oaths, setting forth the soldier's record of service since April 6, 1917, the No preference will be given to discharged soldiers, sailors or marines at sales of Government property. This is only fair. Think about it.
The Victory Medal
- 1. A war service medal, to be known as the Victory Medal, will be awarded to all officers and enlisted men who served on active duty in the Army of the United States at any time between April 6, 1917. and November II, 1918, and whose service was honorable.
- 2. Battle clasps will be awarded for each of the following major operations: (To be eligible for a battle clasp, the officer or enlisted man must have actually participated under orders in the engagement).
- a. SOMME, DEFENSIVE—Between March 2Ist and April 6th. 1918.
- b. LYS—Between April 9th and April 27th, 1918.
- c. AISNE—On the Chemin des Dames and northeast of Rheims between May 27th and June 5th, 1918.
- d. MONTDIDIER - NOYON—Between June 9th and June 13th, 1918.
- e. CHAMPAGNE - MARNE—Between July 15th and July 18th, 1918.
- f. AISNE-MARNE—Between July 18th and August 6th, 1918.
- g. SOMME, OFFENSIVE—Between August 8th and November 11th, 1918.
- h. OISE-AISNE—Between August 18th and November 11 th , 1918.
- i. YPRES-LYS--Between August 19th and November 11th, 1918.
- j. ST. MIHIEL—Between September 12th and September 16th, 1918.
- k. MEUSE - ARGONNE—Between September 26th and November 11 th, 1918.
- 1. VITTORIO - VENETO—Between October 24th and November 4th, 1918.
- 3. Clasps will be awarded to each officer and enlisted man who served overseas and is not entitled to a battle clasp under paragraph 2, as follows:
- a. FRANCE—For service in France between April 6th, 1917, and November 11th, 1918.
- b. ITALY—For service in Italy between April 6th, 1917, and November 11th, 1918.
- c. SIBERIA—For any service in Siberia.
- d. RUSSIA—For any service in European Russia.
- e. ENGLAND—For service in England between April 6th, 1917, and November llth, 1918.
- 4. A bronze star, 3-16 of an inch in diameter, will be placed on the service ribbon for each battle clasp awarded. When an officer or enlisted man has been cited in orders issued from the headquarters of a force commanded by a general officer for gallantry in action, not justifying the award Of a medal of honor, distinguished service cross or distinguished service medal, he will wear a silver star on the ribbon and on the service ribbon for each such citation.
- 5. Pending the procurement and issue of the Victory Medal, organization commanders are authorized to permit those serving under them to wear the service ribbon, and stars to which they are entitled as shown by their records.
The prescribed wound and service chevrons, and special individual decorations, such as The Medal of Honor, The Distinguished Service Cross, The Distinguished Service Medal, The Victory Medal and the appropriate ribbon sections, are a part of the uniform. Special individual decorations from foreign governments, such as the French Croix de Guerre, or similar decorations from other foreign governments, are authorized.
These decorations will be worn as prescribed in Special Regulations No. 41, War Department, 1917. The French shoulder cord known as the fourragère is, however, a part of the French uniform, and only two American organizations are authorized to wear it—Sanitary Section 646 and the 103d Aero Squadron.
Citations are not sufficient. Special authorization for the fourragère must come from the French Government. Such decorations as gold and silver stars on the sleeves, unauthorized campaign ribbons, gold chevrons presumed to denote that the wearer has been a prisoner of war, or denoting any service other than prescribed for such chevrons, are not authorized and will not be permitted.
(See Circular No. 85, War Department, Washington, February 19, 1919.) a
A lapel button, to be known as the Victory Button, for wear on civilian clothes, will be issued to all officers, enlisted men, field clerks and members of the Army Nurse Corps, who served on active duty in the Army of the United States at any time between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918, and whose service was honorable. The button will be silver for those wounded in action, and bronze for all others.
For the present, the Victory Button will be issued at time of honorable discharge to those entitled to it and to those who have already been honorably discharged. Later, the button will be issued to all remaining in service entitled to it.
Those who have been discharged before a supply of buttons was available for issue may secure a button by mailing to the supply officer of the nearest military post, camp or station, including a recruiting station, their original discharge certificate or a true copy thereof prepared on the form provided for the purpose, or, in the case of officers to whom no discharge certificate was issued, their discharge order or a true copy thereof.
The true copy of a discharge certificate or of a discharge order must be executed by a civil officer empowered to administer oaths and be a full, literal and complete copy of the original and contain all written or printed matter appearing on both sides of the discharge certificate or discharge order. The certificate of the civil officer must be in the following form:
"I certify that the foregoing is a true and complete copy of the original discharge certificate (or discharge order) of ............, and contains all written and printed matter appearing on both sides of the discharge certificate (or discharge order).
"I further certify that I have indorsed on the original discharge certificate (or discharge order) over my signature the following in words and figures: True copy made by me (date), 191 . . , for the purpose of securing a Victory Button by mail."
Sam Browne or Liberty Belt
The Sam Browne or Liberty Belt is not authorized in the United States and will not be worn. It is the distinguishing mark of a commissioned officer abroad, but it is considered by the War Department that there is no necessity for its introduction into the United States.
Must I Be Discharged Immediately?
Any man who has no assurance of immediate civilian employment may remain in the service until he obtains employment, or the Government gets him a job. In such cases he will be attached to a unit where his services may be utilized, but without reduction in grade or pay.
Some Guard House or Sea Lawyer is responsible for the prevalence of a belief that a man cannot be discharged unless he has a job. This is not so. Be frank with the Employment Service of the Labor Department. If you have no job in sight, say so. It will not cause your detention in service one extra hour, providing you are eligible for discharge, and, knowing the truth, the Employment Service can help you.
How May a Discharge Be Hastened?
In individual and exceptional cases, a man may be discharged by application through regular military channels, on two grounds:
- Sickness or other distress requiring his presence at home.
- Urgent need of his services in an industry or occupation, including farming. (See Circular 213, War Department, April 28, 1919.)
The test of an urgent industrial need will be invariably whether a man's services are indispensable.
But whether a man seeks discharge because of sickness or distress in his family, or because of industrial reasons, the certificate of his commanding officer that he may be spared by his organization is indispensable.
Remember that it is no more possible for 2,000,000 men to lay down their arms overnight than it is to shoulder them.
Demobilization is just as much a part of the war game as mobilization. I t requires the same soldierly qualities. So play the game out to the end.
Discharge of Officers
Circular No. 75, War Department, Washington. November 20, 1918, provides:
"All separations from the service will be by discharge as authorized by law (tenders of resignations will not be received or considered). Such discharges will be a complete separation of the individual from the service, and will terminate all commissions held by him in the Officers' Reserve Cores, or otherwise. All officers should be so informed, and should also be informed that, while they will be given opportunity to express their desires relative to commission in the Reserve Corps or the Regular Army, the granting of such commissions will be entirely dependent upon their fitness, eligibility. and such vacancies as may be provided by existing or future laws and regulations.
"Orders directing the reduction of the enlisted strength of a command will be construed as requiring a corresponding reduction of commissioned personnel in the manner provided by these instructions. For the purpose of determining the order of discharge officers will be arranged in the following classes, and discharged in the order named :
Class 1—Officers desiring full and immediate separation from the service. (Individual officers in this class, when sent to a demobilization camp, may accomplish separation from the service inside of 24 hours.)
Class 2—Officers desiring prompt separation from the service and subsequent appointment or reappointment in the Reserve Corps, and whom commanding officers recommend for such appointment.
Class 3—Officers desiring appointment, if opportunity permits, in the Regular Army, whom commanding officers recommend for such appointment.
"It is the policy of the War Department not to discharge the following:
- a. Officers holding commissions in the Regular Army, on either the active or retired lists.
- b. Officers in arrest, under charges, or serving sentence of a general court-martial.
- c. Officers having had money or property accountability, and who have no clearance therefor.
- d. Officers on sick report or in hospital.
- e. Officers who for exceptional reasons cannot be spared, or who, in the opinion of their commanding officers, should not be discharged at this time.
"This is the form of order which each officer will receive upon honorable discharge:
"'By direction of the President, and under the provisions of Section 9, Act of Congress, May 18, 1917, and Circular No. 75, War Department, 1918, Captain John Doe, Infantry, is honorably discharged from the service of the United States, for the convenience of the Government, to take effect this date, his services being no longer required.' "
For further information concerning the law and regulations covering an officer's discharge, consult the following:
- a. Section 9, Act of May 18, 1917. (See page 11, Bulletin No. 32, War Department, 1917.)
- b. Sixth paragraph, Section 37, Act of June 3, 1916. (See page 59, Special Regulations No. 43.)
- c. Act of March 2, 1901, relative to travel allowances. (See paragraph 684, Military Laws of the U. S., 1915.)
- d. Act of March 30, 1918, relative to restoration of enlisted men to former grades. (See Section V, Bulletin No. 22, War Department, 1918.)
- e. Memorandum of Judge Advocate General, August 30, 1917. (See paragraphs 3, 4 and 5, page 22, Bulletin No. 72, War Department, 1917.)
- f. Opinion of the Judge Advocate General, 241-5, March 30, 1918. (See page 23, Digest of Opinions, March, 1918.)
Retention of Officers
It is the present policy of the War Department to utilize the services of those officers who have applied for and been recommended to Regular Army appointment, in all lines of work, so as to release all officers who request discharge (whether they desire to be commissioned in the Reserve Corps or not). The former are "Class III" officers.
The others are "Class II" or "Class I." If you are in Class II or 1, and your services can be spared, you may apply for immediate discharge. If you have been placed in Class III, and wish to be discharged, you may ask for discharge, and such discharge will not prejudice your chances for later appointment in the Regular Army at any time you may apply for reclassification.
For further particulars regarding discharge, consult "Compilation of Circulars Relating to Demobilization, W. D. 1918," and also Circular No. 86, W. D. 1919. If you are in Class III, you will find what information there is in Circulars 138 and 148, W. D. 1919.
If Class III officers are reported surplus, and there is no further need of their services, they will be discharged; the fact that they have been discharged does not prejudice in any way their application for appointment in the permanent establishment.
Leave of Absence
An officer arriving for discharge may have separation from the service postponed for a period of 30 days on an application, in writing, to the commanding officer of the camp or station to which he has been ordered for discharge, certifying therein that he desires to use this 30 days in procuring civil employment.
Commanding officers of demobilization centers and other stations having authority to discharge officers, may grant leaves of absence for a period not exceeding 15 days upon the certification of an officer that he desires to use that time in seeking a position.
Commanding officers also are authorized to order an officer going on leave under these circumstances to report at the expiration of leave to the camp or station nearest to his home to be discharged upon the completion of his leave. The journey must be performed at the officer's expense on a leave status.
Reduction of Non-Commissioned Officers
Circular No. 51, War Department, Washington, January 28, 1919, provides that any former noncommissioned officer who was discharged to accept a commission in the United States Army, and who re-enlists within three months from the date of his discharge as a commissioned officer, will be restored to the grade held by him at the time of discharge to accept such commission, with his order of precedence fixed by the date of his warrant in force at the time of such discharge.
Enlistment in Army
If you should desire to continue in the military service, it is your privilege to select the branch you like best.
The bonus of $60 is payable to all men who may continue in the service by reenlistment, but the three months' extra pay for which provision is made under the Act of Congress approved May 11, 1908, is not payable on re-enlistment to men who were previously enlisted or drafted for the period of the emergency.
A furlough of one month is given to each man who re-enlists, which means, of course, a 30-day vacation with pay and allowances and the privilege of going home and returning to your station for a I-cent a mile railroad fare.
Ninety men from the Army are to be sent to West Point annually, and, as always, promotion from the ranks is open to those qualified to hold commissions.
The General Staff has adopted an enlistment policy as follows:
- For men of previous military service, one year or three years.
- For all others, three years.
A man desiring overseas service must enlist for three years.
Following a tour of Army establishments and camps throughout the United States, the Chief of Staff, on March 29, 1919, said:
"I also found in inspecting the recruiting establishments which were organized under our orders that in these camps the number of men obtained was very small. A point came up as to whether it would be possible to promise men service in France.
Generally men who had not been able to get across said that they would be glad to enlist with a chance of getting overseas; and on the spot I promised definitely to each man that he would get foreign service, and on my return (to Washington) I approved an order which has already appeared in the press, promising definitely that we will give that character of service to, say; 50,000 men of the 175,000 authorized by the last Congress to be enlisted."
Recruiting for voluntary enlistments was resumed on February 28, 1919. Up to April 21st there had been 17,542 enlistments.
The Army strength within the United States, as of March 25th, was 605,178. From November 12, 1918, to March 26, 1919, 1,535,471 of the 3,670,888 officers and men under arms on the day of the first armistice had been discharged, and 573,474 officers and men had returned from overseas.
What The Army Offers
The Motor Transport Corps has schools at Camp Holabird, Baltimore, Md.; Camp Jessup, Atlanta, Ga.; Camp Normoyle, San Antonio, Tex.; Camp Boyd, El Paso, Tex.
Any man with an eighth-grade education and of average intelligence may be enrolled. Men for one-year enlistments are c qualified in the various sub-branches of motor repair. The three-year period qualifies the soldiers to be general motor workers, able to manage a garage repair shop on motor work in a small town; and men can earn from $25 a week up, even after the one-year course.
The Air Service has schools at 17 flying fields, and trains men in 41 different trades.
The Coast Artillery has a specialists' school at Fortress Monroe, Va., where men are trained in steam, electrical engineering, and radio work, and other subjects.
The Tanks Corps, Ordnance Department, Construction Division, and Engineers, train men in various pursuits.
It's up to a man to choose his own branch, whether those named, or Infantry, Cavalry, Field Artillery, the Medical Department, the Signal Corps or the Quartermaster Corps.
Briefly, the inducements in all are a good education in special lines, pay while learning, good meals, and free clothing.
Enlistment in Navy
The Navy desires to enlist all men possible. Enlistments are for a four-year period only. Aptitude will be rewarded by an opportunity to enter a training school where a man may be trained for practically any trade. As yet no cruises have been planned, but the Department is working on the subject.
Enlistment in Marine Corps
Enlistments in the Marine Corps are for four years only. The Corps offers general training with a possibility of overseas service. Chances are good for promotion in the non-commissioned grades. At present the Corps is carrying on an extensive recruiting service with much publicity.
Your friends are legion. They are represented in innumerable agencies and forces, federal, civil, commercial, social, private, devoted to your interests, and to the project of getting you out of the 0. D., the Blue, or the Greens, and placed in civil life comfortably and successfully. You have only to ask to receive.
You will find that the War Department, the Department of Labor, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Agriculture, the Federal Board for Vocational Education, not to mention other branches of the Government, are working zealously in behalf of your future. As for civic and private agencies, it may be said that they are innumerable. For instance, there is the Red Cross, with an incomparable organization of service and information. Its Home Service Section says to you:
"If, when you get home, you are troubled because a member of your family is not in good health, because business difficulties have arisen while you were away, because you lacked competent advice about the education of your children, or because you feel that you have developed so that you can fill a more responsible job than your old one, consult the Home Service Section of the Red Cross. Its advice and its experience in helping other soldiers and their families may be of assistance to you.
'You have been willing to fight for high ideals on the battlefield, and we know that you can be depended upon to fight for equally high ideals in your home town. In the Army you have set an example to the country of courage and good citizenship, and the country will look to you to set the same example when you get back in civil life. We know that you want to continue to 'play the game.'
We, on our part, want to continue to serve you and your family until you are once more settled in civil life, with the same spirit in which we were ready to serve both them and you while you were under arms."
This is the spirit that is abroad throughout the land. It is the spirit of the Council of Nationa 1 Defense, the U. S. Employment Service, the War Camp Community Service, the American Federation of Labor, the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A., the Knights of Columbus, the Y. W. C. A., the Nationa 1 Catholic War Council, the Jewish Welfare Board, the Salvation Army, the American Library Association, the Chamber of Commerce of the U. S., the chambers of commerce and boards of trade of all States and cities, all churches and fraternal orders.
If You Get Sick
Any soldier, sailor or marine honorably discharged since October 6, 1917, for disability incurred in active service in line of duty, and who later becomes sick or requires hospital treatment as a direct and traceable result of that disability, is entitled to be treated at a military hospital if there is room, or otherwise, at a local civilian hospital at Government expense.
In such cases get in touch with the nearest representative of the United States Public Health Service, by telegraph if urgent, or telegraph the Chief Medical Adviser, the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Washington, D. C.
It's the Government's obligation to provide artificial and surgical appliances free of cost. Those officers and men whose misfortune makes it necessary to take advantage of this obligation should be most particular in getting legs and arms and appliances which fit. A man's a loser if he lets himself be bluffed about this. It's the duty of the Surgeon General's Office and The Bureau of War Risk Insurance to see that every man gets a square deal.
Vocational training means training in a profession as well as in a trade.
All vocational training is carried on under the direction of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, created by an Act of Congress, to provide for the vocational rehabilitation and return to civil employment of disabled persons discharged from the military or naval forces of the United States, and for other purposes. This Board is in close co-operation with the Surgeon General's Office and The Bureau of War Risk Insurance.
When the time comes that the disabled man in the hospital begins to ask himself, "Where do we go from here?" he should find a field representative of the Federal Board camping on his trail to tell him all about the opportunities for training him to make as much as or more than he did before being called to the colors.
But no matter what happens, don't leave the hospital without having an understanding with the Federal Board representative. Camp on his trail, if necessary. Insist upon getting Form 526 while you are in the hospital.
Get it out of your head, if you have it there, and out of anybody else's with whom you talk, that there is any charity in all this. Nothing of the kind. A disabled soldier, sailor or marine taking vocational training will receive, if single, $65 a month; if married and living with his wife, $75; if married and separated during training, $65 a month, and his wife $30 a month. While undergoing training a man receives either compensation or pay at the rate of pay for the last month of his service, whichever is greater.
A great many disabled discharged men have missed the splendid benefits of vocational training because of the prevalence of one or two false impressions. First: that in accepting vocational training they would forfeit their compensation; and, secondly: that they would have to re-enlist in either the Army or the Navy to be eligible to receive this training. Neither of these fears has the slightest foundation.
It may be possible for a man to undergo his training within a few miles of his home, but if no suitable places exist in his neighborhood the Government will provide education at the nearest suitable place.
Not every disabled soldier or sailor is entitled to vocational training. Only those entitled to compensation as indicated under the subject head "Compensation" are eligible. Even in this class, retraining must, in the opinion of the Federal Board, be feasible and necessary. But as a result of an appropriation by the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks to the Federal Board, men who are not entitled to compensation can in the discretion of the Board be given training.
All disabled soldiers, sailors and marines, whether in or out of the hospital, should address communications either to The Federal Board for Vocational Education, 200 New Jersey Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C., or to the District Office of the Federal Board of the district in which he is located. The District Offices of the Board are located as follows: (This section omitted)
Your Old Job or a Better One
The best advice that can be given to any man leaving the military establishment at this time is to get in touch with his old employer at the earliest possible moment. Industry in the United States is in a state of flux. There have been many dislocations as the result of reversing the machinery which was going at full tilt in one direction on a war schedule, and sending it full tilt in an opposite direction on a peace programme.
Notwithstanding these conditions, the country is prepared to reabsorb its fighting forces in civil life. The quickness of readjustment, however, depends on the spirit in which you meet your country. It was put up to you to help win the industries of your country back to normal functions of peace.
You can do that, too. And the best way to do it, after you are done with visiting around home and telling the folks all about it, is to get to work in your old job or a better one. Perhaps you are better than your old job, but if no other is obtainable, get work. Get your hand in. I t is a well-established fact of life that it is easier to step from one job into another than from no job. This is not "bull"—it is straight from the shoulder, sincere dope.
Getting a Job
A representative of the United States Employment Service is stationed in each demobilization camp, where a record of each man to be discharged is made. If a man is dubious about whether he can obtain his old job, he is put in a class of men in the same position. If he is certain that he will need employment when he leaves the Army, he is put in another class.
A third class consists of men who know they have employment and will not need help. A duplicate card system is used for those who will need assistance, one card being given to the man, and the other mailed to the United States Employment Office in the city to which or near which he wishes to return. This saves three or four days of the man's time and enables the employment office in that particular city to obtain a place and have it ready when the man arrives.
Twenty-eight per cent. of the men discharged from the Army, Navy and Marine Corps are being placed by the employment service. Seventy-five per cent of all those who say they need assistance in finding employment are placed. Since the middle of January, 1919, and up to the middle of April, when this "Handy-Andy" was written, the service had put to work an average of one hundred thousand men a week.
There are in operation in 2,000 cities and towns in the country Bureaus for Returning Soldiers, Sailors and Marines whose single reason for existence is to get you placed. In addition there are 400 offices of the United States Employment Service distributed throughout the country with the object of co-ordinating all the agencies which are playing the game of reabsorbing the fighting forces of the United States.
A representative of the United States Civil Service Commission is on duty at all demobilization camps and centers and in constant touch with the commanding officers thereof giving information as to the latest opportunities for employment in the civil service. The country is divided, for convenience of administration, into 12 civil service districts, with headquarters at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Atlanta, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Paul, St. Louis, New Orleans, Seattle. and San Francisco.
Information is to be had at any time concerning pending examinations and future opportunities from those headquarters, from the secretary of the local board of Civil Service Examiners at the post office or custom house in any of 3,000 cities, or from the United States Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C.
Information concerning (1) reinstatement in the civil service of men who left that branch of the Government to take part in the war, (2) extension of eligibility of those whose names were on registers of eligibles when they entered the military or naval service, and (3) preference in appointment allowed by law to men discharged from the military or naval service, may be obtained by communicating with the United States Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C., or from the headquarters named above.
Section 1754 of the Revised Statutes provides that all persons honorably discharged from the military or naval service by reason of disability resulting from wounds or sickness incurred in the line of duty shall be preferred for appointments to civil offices if they are found to possess the business capacity necessary for the proper discharge of the duties of such offices.
A person who has been allowed preference by the commission has the following advantages:
- a. He is free from age limitation;
- b. He has to attain an average percentage of only 65 to be eligible, while for all others the average percentge required is 70;
- c. Having attained an average of 65, his name is placed upon the register above, and is certified before, those of persons who have not been allowed preference.
Section 1754, R. S., applies to positions in the entire civil service, both in Washington, D. C., and in the country at large, while an Act of Congress approved March 3, 1919, which applies to positions in the departments and independent governmental establishments in Washington, D. C., only provides:
That hereafter in making appointments to clerical and other positions in the executive departments and in independent governmental establishments preference shall be given to honorably discharged soldiers, sailors and marines and widows of such if they are qualified to hold such positions.
In so far as practicable, preference in re-employment or reinstatement in our railroads under Government control is given to soldiers and sailors on being discharged. These general principles set forth by the United States Railroad Administration govern:
- a. In the case of an employee having established seniority rights, so far as practicable, and where the employee is physically qualified, he will be restored to such seniority rights.
- b. In the case of employees who do not have seniority rights under existing practices, a consistent effort will be made to provide employment for them when mustered out of military service.
Your Civil Rights
If, while you have been in the Army or Navy, or within thirty days after your discharge therefrom, a court has rendered judgment against you by default, do not be flustered. Under the Civil Relief Act or Civil Rights Bill, you may apply at any time within ninety days after your discharge, either in person or by attorney, to have a judgment set aside.
If, in the opinion of the court, your having been in the military or naval service of your country prevented you from properly defending any action brought against you, and you have a good defense, a judgment can be set aside. If, while in the service, you have defaulted in payment on a mortgage executed prior to March 8th, 1918, although the provisions of the mortgage provided that the mortgagee may sell the property in the event of default, do not worry.
The law forbids such a sale, except by special order of court, until three months after discharge. If, while you have been in service, taxes have become overdue on property belonging to you, which property was occupied by you or your family before you entered the service, and occupied by your family after your entrance into the service, that property cannot be sold to collect any taxes or assessments except upon a special order permitting the sale.
But if you find that such property has been sold for unpaid taxes or assessments while you were in the service, it may be redeemed by the payment of the principal and 6 per cent. interest added at any time within six months after the President has proclaimed the war at an end.
Homestead and Land Laws
Since the United States declared war, April 6, 1917, The Congress has enacted numerous laws for the protection of soldiers, sailors and marines in homestead and mining rights. Here follows a summary of these laws:
- Section 501, of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act, March 8, 1917, provides that no claims initiated prior to that date by any soldier or sailor "shall be forfeited or prejudiced by reason of his absence from such land, or of his failure to perform any work, or make any improvements thereon, or do any other act required by any such law during the period of such service."
- A joint resolution of July 17, 1917, provides that "any soldier having entered mining claims and being absent in the military service shall be excused from performing the annual assessment work of one hundred days on his mining claim while so absent, subject, however, to his having filed notice in the local recording office of his desire to be excused from the performance of the annual labor requirement on the ground of military service.
- A joint resolution of October 5, 1917, relieves all mining claimants, excepting all placer claimants and without regard to military or naval service, from performing assessment work on mining claims during the calendar years of 1917 and 1918. (Mark, that the July resolution is applicable to soldiers, sailors and marines owning mines for whatever period they may be engaged in the military service, while the October resolution is general, and limits exemption to 1917 and 1918.)
- The law of October 6, 1917, provides that a settler or entryman who entered a claim prior to enlistment may make oath to all necessary papers before his commanding officer, with the same effect as if he had sworn to them before the Referee or Register of the United States Land Office.
- Section 8 of an Act of August 31, 1918 (as supplemented by joint resolution of September 13, 1918), extends the same rights under the public land laws to soldiers, sailors and marines under 21 years of age as are possessed by persons other than soldiers, sailors and marines 21 years of age or over. Requirements under previous laws as to establishment of residence within a limited time are suspended until six months after an entryman's discharge from the military service.
- The joint resolution of September 13, 1918, provides that no claimant shall be permitted to relinquish an entry until he shall have actually resided upon and cultivated the land, for either a period of six months in the case of a homestead entry, or for one year in the case of any other form of entry.
- The General Land Office construes the law of August 31, 1918, to mean that soldiers under 21 years of age may enter homesteads after enlistment and also receive credit on residence and cultivation for the time spent in the military establishment.
Provided funds are made available by Congress at the special session, the Department of the Interior plans to construct soldier-settlements in practically every State.
Under this plan honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, and marines will be given work helping to construct these settlements, where later those who are qualified by reason of thrift, energy, and the determination to make an agricultural success, will be given an opportunity to select a farm home.
The kind of employment which will be offered will range from that of the technically qualified man to that of laborer. There will be work of practically every character, as there will be need for such men as engineers, draftsmen, surveyors, accountants, bookkeepers, stenographers, storekeepers, general clerks, foreman, truck drivers, teamsters, blacksmiths, cooks, and almots every conceivable sort of employment.
The work will consist in helping in the construction of dams and canals, blowing stumps and clearing off brush, digging drainage ditches, leveling and cultivating land, building houses and barns, constructing roads, laying out town sites, and, in short, all kinds of work associated with the creation of model community settlements.
When these settlements have been built, those men who are qualified will be allowed to take up farm houses, to be paid for in easy payment over a period of forty years. The payment will include the cost of the farm and of its reclamation and the cost of farm improvements, such as house, barn, etc., which have been placed upon it.
During the time that these men work on this construction they will be paid good wages by the Government, equal to the wages paid for similar work in other localities. From these wages a man possessing the necessary qualities for success will be able without difficulty to save enough money to make the first payment on his farm home that he has helped to create. The balance he can pay in equally small installments from the income he re. ceives from the sale of his farm products.
It is planned to build soldier settlements that will accommodate at least 100 families. The farms will range in size from 5 to 160 acres, depending on the type of farming suited to the particular locality, and will radiate from a central town, which will be supplied with a schoolhouse, a town hall, a church, and other buildings to accommodate enterprises of a co-operative nature, such as a creamery, a cannery, etc.
Each farm will be practically a going concern before being turned over for occupancy, with house and barn built, roads constructed, fields leveled and plowed, and with perhaps even the first crop put in, and furnished with necessary farm stock and farm implements.
At the recent session of The Congress bills for carrying out this plan were favorably reported in both the House and the Senate, and it is expected that the matter will receive favorable action at the special session. If such action is taken, the men who wish work in the open and an opportunity to own a farm home of their own should learn all they can about this plan of the Department of the Interior.
With this end in view, the Department is distributing at each camp throughout the United States small booklets entitled "Hey There! Do You Want a Home on a Farm?" Don't fail to get this if you've the slightest bit of yearning for the land.
Each booklet has attached to it a postcard containing certain questions which you are asked to answer. You should fill out this postcard and mail it to The Interior Department, Washington, D. C. Your name will then be on file to receive further information regarding the plan, if Congress takes favorable action. It is your interest which will put this tremendous project over the top As you think about a thing, you, an elector, so The Congress must think. That's why you vote to elect men whenever possible who think as you do.
The Farming Game
In the whole world there is no man, institution or establishment that can tell you more about farms, or give you better dope on how to get a living out of the land than the United States Department of Agriculture.
Get in touch with the representative of this Department in your camp. You will find him in the Employment Service offices. He is prepared to give you every kind of agricultural information and to assist you in locating employment as a farm worker, or in finding for you a suitable farm to rent, to crop on shares or purchase.
The Department of Agriculture has an organization of field instructors or agricultural advisors numbering more than 2,000 located in nearly every important agricultural county in the country so co-ordinated that you can avail yourself of the assistance of any one of these through their representative located at your camp or by writing to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
There are several capacities in which a man may make a beginning in the business of farming. He may secure employment on a good modern farm as skilled hired man, or foreman, or manager; in fact, there is an opportunity on many farms to make a satisfactory start as a worker, even without much preliminary training.
If a small capital—say, $1,500 or $2,000—has been accumulated, it is easily possible to buy a team, the necessary farm machinery and other equipment, and rent a farm, either on a cash basis or on shares.
Farm wages are often thought of as being far below those paid for work requiring similar skill in cities. We often forget, however, the other considerations which go with the cash wage to the farm worker.
The married men who may find employment on farms are furnished a house and a garden, and are given the privilege of keeping chickens. Moreover, they are furnished pork and milk from the farm supplies free of charge.
The single hired man has board and room in addition to his wages. These perquisites or considerations outside of the actual cash salary are easily worth from $360 to $560 a year in different parts of the country. In fact, careful estimates indicate that a wage of $50 a month and board on a farm is the financial equivalent of $1,500 a year in the average modern city.
The opportunities for advancement in farming are fully equal to those which are offered in city trades. The history of a large percentage of our present farmers includes the hired man and tenant stage through which they passed in becoming farm owners.
On an average the whole process from hired man through the stage of tenant to the owner of a farm, without encumbrance, requires about 25 years. At the end of that time, however, the estate which you have acquired is of far greater value than the average estate of the man who works at a city trade or other profession.
Professional and scientific societies are addressing themselves to the task of reabsorbing professional men through special organizations created for the purpose. Among those maintaining such agencies are The American Chemical Society, The American Institute of Mining Engineers The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The American Society of Civil Engineers, and The American Society of Automotive Engineers. The officer or man seeking a place need not be a member of the society which covers his profession.
Those still in the service, or who may have been discharged, and who are interested in the profession of pharmacy, should address the advisory committee of The American Pharmaceutical Society for Soldier and Sailor Pharmacists, 1005 Mercantile Library Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. The association is in a position to help find positions in any State in the Union, and to direct attention to opportunities to engage in business, and to opportunities and means to carry on and finish a pharmaceutical education.
To the man whose college or university life has been broken by the war there are but two words to say: Get back. Don't let a Gypsy heel, or the smell of wood fires, or the call of a winding road lead you astray until you've finished college. There'll be time enough when that's done to go Gypsying. After the Civil War, and even after the fracas of '98 there were ever so many who thought it was too late to go back. Talk to them about it. They'll tell you it was the mistake of their lives.
Beaucoup for Nothing
Consider books as friends of deep experience and good judgment. While you are aboard ship or in the demobilization camp, you will find in the American Library Association Building, and after you get home you will find in the public library, the book you want on automobiles, gas engines, engineering, salesmanship, plumbing, carpentry, or any other of the myriad of subjects which engage a man's endeavors. Use your library as a bureau of information.
If your library does not own the book you want, ask the librarian to borrow it for you from the State Library or the State Library Commission, or some other source known to him. It is possible to get any kind of a book. There is no country in the world organized in this respect like the United States.
If there is no public library in your town, write to your State Library Commission, or to The American Library Association, 78 East Washington Street, Chicago, Ill. The A. L. A. knows the book game.
Library service is free. This is a tip. Go to it.
To the man with the inspiration to possess the advantages of a higher education there are many opportunities beckoning. Ask the representatives of the U. S. Employment Service, the welfare agencies and libraries at any of the camps or demobilization centers for a copy of Higher Education Circular No. 12, December, 1918.
Failing to obtain it from these sources, write direct to The Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C., and request that it be sent to you.
This circular contains dope on over 60 per cent. of colleges for men in the United States who wish to do their part by the man who has been doing his part. It will tell you the names and locations of these colleges, the courses leading to different degrees, the dates at which returned service men may enter degree courses, the cost of tuition, if any, the number of scholarships and the amount of each available for discharged soldiers and sailors, the number of short courses and their length, the date of beginning and preliminary educational requirements, professional courses (law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine and other), the estimated weekly cost of housing and subsistence in barracks or outside, the chances of self-support and the name of the college official to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The United States Commissioner of Education puts it to you in these words: "A man who in ordinary times would not be admitted to a reputable college because of defective preparation now has a chance."
All States and many of the larger cities maintain public normal schools, in which teachers are trained for service in the elementary schools and as supervisors and teachers of special branches. Tuition at public normal schools is generally free. The course of study for graduates of high schools is generally two years. Completion of this course means eligibility to State certificates.
For students who have had less than finished high school education many normal schools provide longer courses, three or four years in all, designed to cure the deficiencies in high school education as well as to give professional training.
Provisions are commonly made by normal schools to enable students to earn sufficient money to pay for part of their living expenses.
Acknowledgement is made to the American Red Cross for its contribution of part of the paper for use in this book.
- Agriculture 51, 53, 55
- Air Service 39
- Allotments 18
- American Red Cross 41
- Application for Compensation 13
- Artificial Limbs 43
- Back Pay 17
- Beneficiaries 8
- Bonus on Discharge 6, 15
- Books 58
- Bureau for Returning Soldiers, Sailors and Marines 46, 47
- Civil Rights 14, 50
- Civil Service 47
- Clothing 28
- Coast Artillery 39
- College Men 58, 59
- Compensation 12
- Conversion of Insurance 8
- Decorations 31
- Disability 12
- Discharge 5, 33
- Discharge Chevron 26
- Discharge of Officers 34
- Equipment 28
- Education 59
- Employment 46
- Army 38
- Marine Corps 40
- Navy 40
- Farms 51, 53, 55
- Fourragere 31
- Friends 40
- Homestead Laws 51
- Hun Cooties 27
- Income Tax 20
- Insurance 7
- Jobs 46
- Land 51, 53
- Lapel Button 32
- Liberty Belt 33
- Liberty Loan Bonds 20
- Mining Rights 50, 51
- Motor Transport Corps 39
- Naval Reserve Force 23
- Navy Uniform 25
- Non-Commissioned Officers 37
- Retention 36
- Discharge 34
- Leave of Absence 34
- Pay, Claims for Back 17
- Pay on Discharge 6
- Pension (see Compensation) 7
- Policies, Insurance 8, 14
- Premiums 8 9, 10, 11
- Private Insurance 14
- Professional Men 57
- Purchase of Clothing 29
- Railroad Men 49
- Reduction of Non-Commissioned Officers 37
- Sam Browne Belt 33
- Sickness after Discharge 42
- Tank Corps 40
- Toilet Articles 28
- Travel Allowance 6
- Uniform 21, 28
- United States Employment Service 46
- Victory Button 32
- Victory Medal 29
- Vocational Training 43
- War Risk Insurance 7
- Zone Finance Officer 6, 7
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ? THIS IS THE REAL DOPE
BY WILLIAM BROWN MELONEY
LATE MAJOR EA UNITED 5TATES ARMY
SOLDIERS, SAILORS AND MARINES
BY WAR CAMP COMMUNITY SERVICE