SS George Washington Passenger List - 8 September 1931

Front Cover of a Cabin Class Passenger List from the SS George Washington of the United States Lines, Departing 8 September 1931 from Hamburg to New York via Southampton and Cherbourg

Front Cover of a Cabin Class Passenger List from the SS George Washington of the United States Lines, Departing 8 September 1931 from Hamburg to New York via Southampton and Cherbourg, Commanded by Captain Geo. Fried, U.S.N.R. GGA Image ID # 1652b5c4b4

Senior Officers and Staff

  • Commander: Captain Geo. Fried, U.S.N.R.
  • Chief Officer: E. A. Richmond
  • Chief Engineer: John B. Morris
  • Purser: A. Koppenjan
  • Chief Surgeon: Dr. E. J. Linnehan
  • Chief Steward: Charles H. Heidorn

Cabin Class Passengers

  1. Mr. Emil Albrecht
  2. Mrs. Albrecht
  3. Dr Benjamin C. Adelman
  4. Mrs. Adelman
  5. Dr. A W. Adson
  6. Mrs. Adson
  7. Prof. Arthur S. Aiton
  8. Mrs. Aiton
  9. Mr. George Alpers
  10. Mrs. Alpers
  11. Miss R. Armer
  12. A Mrs. Emma E. Bachellerie
  13. Mr. Ames H. Bagley
  14. Mrs. Anna M. Barnbrock
  15. Mrs. Jessie C. Battle
  16. Mrs. Maggie Bayer
  17. Mrs. Amy C. Beggs
  18. Mrs. Fannie Beckman
  19. Mr. Charles H. Beeson
  20. Mrs Beeson
  21. Mr. James W. Beller
  22. Mrs. Beller
  23. Mr. F. P. Bellsola
  24. Mrs. Bellsola
  25. Mrs. Margaret W. Beye
  26. Mrs. Emma K. Biddle
  27. Mr. Henry Binns
  28. Mrs Binns
  29. Major John K. Boles
  30. Mrs. Julia D. Bosher
  31. Mrs. Bertha Blaine
  32. Mrs. Adelia F. Blakey
  33. Mrs. Catherine K. Blake
  34. Miss Blanche B. Boyer
  35. Mrs. Stella A. Brasch
  36. Mrs. Minnie Brandt
  37. Mr. C. Ames Brooks
  38. Mrs. Anliss E. H. Brown
  39. Miss Eva Brummer
  40. Mrs. Mary C. Bryan
  41. Mrs. A. M. Burkhart
  42. Mr. Sheldon H. Butler
  43. Mrs. Butler
  44. Rev. Mother M. V. Caddy
  45. Mr. W. D. Callister
  46. Miss Beulah J. Carpenter
  47. Mr. John D. Carothers
  48. Mrs. Carothers
  49. Dr. Michael L. M. Chamezski
  50. Mrs. L. C. Chandler
  51. Mrs. Mary E. T. Chopin
  52. Mr. Charles A. Clark
  53. Mrs. Clark
  54. Mrs. Harriet E. Clouse
  55. Mrs. Nellie K. Cobb
  56. Mr. William L. Codd
  57. Miss Elora Cohen
  58. Miss Alzada Comstock
  59. Miss Ever Louise Conner
  60. Miss Florence E. Converse
  61. Mr. Gordon Cooper
  62. Mr. William W. Cooper
  63. Mr. Chris Cordes
  64. Mrs. Cordes
  65. Mrs. L. V . Coulter
  66. Miss Margaret Cowie
  67. Mrs. Lillie Crady
  68. Mrs. Vergeania Crammer
  69. Mrs. Maria B. Croker
  70. Mrs. Cecilia Crowley
  71. Miss Phoebe E. Davis
  72. Miss Marjorie Davis
  73. Mrs. E. Nora Davison
  74. Miss Emmeline K. Davison
  75. Mr. Owen J. Devlin
  76. Mrs. Rose P. Devoe
  77. Mrs. C. C. Devore
  78. Miss Mary G. Devore
  79. Master John C. Devore
  80. Master John C. Devore
  81. Mrs. Jennie L. Dolbeer
  82. Mr. William J. Donohue
  83. Miss G. Doris
  84. Mrs. John R. Dorsey
  85. Mrs. Mary E. Dresbaek
  86. Mrs. Mary J. Duke
  87. Mrs. Louise D. Dugan
  88. Miss Doris Jane Dugan
  89. Mr. William Dugan
  90. Master David Dugan
  91. Miss Hazel Dygerl
  92. Mrs. Jennie Eales
  93. Prof. William Eddy
  94. Mrs. Cora B. Eddy
  95. Mrs. Clara S. Elder
  96. Mr. Augustine Elmendorf
  97. Mrs. Elmendorf
  98. Mr. George Ely
  99. Mrs. Belle Ely
  100. Mr. Arthur M. Ellis
  101. Mrs. Ellis
  102. Miss Mildred W. Ellis
  103. Mr. Herbert B. Ellis
  104. Mr. Arthur Emptage
  105. Mr. Jack K. Emmet
  106. Mr. Edward Erker
  107. Mr. Arthur O. Ernst
  108. Mrs. Ernst
  109. Mr. Robert Ernst
  110. Mr. James Ernst
  111. Dr. A.  Faessler
  112. Miss Mary E. Fanton
  113. Mrs. Mary H. Fay
  114. Mr. G. A. Ferguson
  115. Prof. E.. M. Finesilver
  116. Mrs. Finesilver
  117. Miss Sara K. Fisher
  118. Dr. J. K. A. Fischer
  119. Mrs. Flora O. Fox
  120. Mrs. Franks
  121. Miss Yvonne Franks
  122. Lieut. James G. Fry
  123. Mrs. Fry
  124. Master James C. Fry
  125. Mr. Bruce Gallan
  126. Mrs. Gallan
  127. Mr. L. M. N. Garcia
  128. Mrs. Ella N. George
  129. Hon. Georges de Ghika
  130. Mrs. Anna E. K. Graef
  131. Miss Rachel Granville
  132. Major B. McKay Greeley
  133. Mrs. Greeley
  134. Miss Anita M. Greeley
  135. Mr. Louis Grell
  136. Mr. W. Devereux Green
  137. Mrs. Devereux Green
  138. Miss M. Green
  139. Lieut. James L. Grier
  140. Mrs. David S. Grinsfelder
  141. Mrs. Mary K. Gunderman
  142. Mrs. Martha M. Hall
  143. Miss Kate M. Hall
  144. Mrs. Edith M. Hardyman
  145. Mrs. Agnes G. Haskell
  146. Miss Mary Hayden
  147. Mrs. J. R. Hayden
  148. Miss Elizabeth Hayden
  149. Master Rolston Hayden
  150. Mr. John G. Hayes
  151. Mrs. Hayes
  152. Mr. R. E. Head
  153. Mr. Cecil L. Head
  154. Dr Herman Herzfeld
  155. Mrs. Herzfeld
  156. Miss Marie J. Hessmer
  157. Mrs. Lillian Heywood
  158. Miss Dorothy L. Higgins
  159. Mr. Joseph Hirsch
  160. Mrs. Hirsch
  161. Miss K. M. Hitchcock
  162. Miss Jean Hoagland
  163. Miss M. Regula Hoffendahl
  164. Capt. H. F. T. Hoffman
  165. Mrs. Hoffman
  166. Mrs. Ada Smith Holmes
  167. Mr. B. Honig
  168. Mrs. Honig
  169. Mrs. Nellie Hooper
  170. Mrs. Emma A. Hotchkiss
  171. Mrs. W. V. Howard
  172. Miss S. Howard
  173. Miss P. Howard
  174. Mr. Steven D. Howells
  175. Mrs. Nellie Hullette
  176. Mrs. Nannie H. Hutchins
  177. Mrs. Foanna G. Hynson
  178. Mrs K. B. Ingersoll
  179. Mrs. S. M. Jacobson
  180. Mr. Barney Jaffin
  181. Mrs. Jaffin
  182. Mr. W. W. Jaques
  183. Mrs. Jaques
  184. Mr. Willard K. Jaques
  185. Miss Mabel A. Jaques
  186. Congressman Larmar Jeffers
  187. Mrs. Constance Jensen
  188. Mr. Conrad A. Johnson
  189. Mrs. Mollie Jones
  190. Mrs. Loretta Jones
  191. Mrs. K. A. Josephe
  192. Mrs. Therese Keihn
  193. Mrs. Anna Keler
  194. Mrs. J. T. Kelley
  195. Miss Louise Kelley
  196. Miss Edna Kelley
  197. Mrs. Gustave Kellner
  198. Miss Ethel S. Kellner
  199. Miss Constance I. Kellner
  200. Mrs. Mary J. G. Kendall
  201. Miss Dorothy Kendall
  202. Miss E. H. Knox
  203. Mr. Andrew Kobal
  204. Mrs. Lydia E. Kohn
  205. Mrs. Frank J. Kortis
  206. Mrs. Minnie Kosman
  207. Mrs. Kathleen Konstovich
  208. Mr. Kenneth H. Kraft
  209. Mrs. Kraft
  210. Mrs. Freda Kraus
  211. Miss Lottie Kraus
  212. Mrs. Margaret Krueger
  213. Rev. Father Matthew Kuebel
  214. Mr. I. J. Kuhn
  215. Mrs. Rarbara Kurner
  216. Mrs. Martha Kurz-Bauer
  217. Mrs. Harriot Ladner
  218. Mrs. Clara A. Landgren
  219. Miss Grace A. Larsen
  220. Miss Dorothy Lawton
  221. Mrs. W. K. Laveille
  222. Mrs. Florence Lawrence
  223. Mr. Richard R. Leemann
  224. Mrs. L. J. Lefller
  225. Mrs. Mary I. Legris
  226. Dr. Isaac I. Lemann
  227. Mrs. Lemann
  228. Miss Helen Levine
  229. Miss Therese Levy
  230. Mr. Morris Lewin
  231. Mrs. Lewin
  232. Master Leonard C. Lewin
  233. Mrs. Olise M. Liisberg
  234. Mrs. Alina M. Linguist
  235. Mrs. Lucille Liveright
  236. Miss Lucy Liveright
  237. Mrs. Margaret Long
  238. Mrs. Amanda C. Lull
  239. Mr. Hastings Lyon
  240. Mrs. Mary MacIntyre
  241. Mrs. Elizabeth McManus
  242. Mrs. Kate T. MacRae
  243. Hon. Frank Mann
  244. Mrs. Mann
  245. Mr. Frederick P. Marble
  246. Mrs. Marble
  247. Miss Elizabeth W. Mamvaring
  248. Capt. Ward H. Maris
  249. Mrs. Jennie Martin
  250. Mrs. Florence Martineau
  251. Mrs. Lilly Mathers
  252. Mrs. Janet G. McBride
  253. Mrs. Margaret A. Mcllwain
  254. Mr. George I. McEldowney
  255. Mrs. McEldowney
  256. Mr. William McKaig
  257. Mrs. McKaig
  258. Prof. A Philip McMaher
  259. Mrs. Laura G. McNeil
  260. Mr. Meacham
  261. Mrs. Meacham
  262. Mrs. Helen M. Merriam
  263. Mr. Herman Meyer-Lindenbe
  264. Mrs. Hattie Miller
  265. Mrs. Anna T. Miller
  266. Mrs. Eliza Mocker
  267. Mrs. Mandy Mollencop
  268. Mr. James A. Moore
  269. Mrs. Lillian G. Moores
  270. Miss Nester H. Morrill
  271. Mrs. Johanne Muench
  272. Mrs. Margaret M. Muffley
  273. Mrs. E. H. Nall
  274. Miss Margaret Nall
  275. Mrs. Elizabeth Nevins
  276. Mrs. John Obenvager
  277. Mr. Edward K. Obenvager
  278. Mr. J. O'Connor
  279. Mrs. Minnie T. O'Connor
  280. Capt. Remmington Orsinger
  281. Mrs. Orsinger
  282. Mr. Thomas H. Osgood
  283. Mrs. Maggie R. Overton
  284. Mr. Axel H. Oxholm
  285. Mrs. Oxholm
  286. Master Axel H. Oxholm
  287. Mrs. Vera Parsons
  288. Mr. Ernest M. Patterson
  289. Mrs. Patterson
  290. Miss Grace Patterson
  291. Mr. Charles Pavilt
  292. Mrs. Pavilt
  293. Mr. Paul H. Pearson
  294. Mr. James H. Pelham
  295. Miss Annelise Pelzold
  296. Mrs. Clara A. Peverill
  297. Mr. George H. Picard
  298. Mr. Luis Eurigne Pombo
  299. Mrs. Pombo
  300. Miss Beatrice Pombo
  301. Master Fernando Pombo
  302. Master Henriquez Pombo
  303. General Francis H. Pope
  304. Mrs. Pope
  305. Mrs. Irene F. Porter
  306. Mrs. Emma J. Potter
  307. Miss Anna A. Prentis
  308. Dr. George M. Price
  309. Mrs. Price
  310. Mrs. Clara J. Price
  311. Dr. Raoul C. Provost
  312. Mrs. Provost
  313. Miss Bertha H. Putram
  314. Mrs. Carolina Ouesenberry
  315. Mrs. Gladys Quesenberry
  316. Mrs. Gladys A. Ranney
  317. Mr. Robert G. Rayburn
  318. Miss Glenn Raymond
  319. Dr. Cornelius H. van Ravenswaay
  320. Mr. Charles van Ravenswaay
  321. Mrs. Eleanor E. Reinoehl
  322. Mr. Donald Renshaw
  323. Mrs. Nettie P. Renshaw
  324. Mr. Sterling J. Richards
  325. Mrs. Lula G. Rigdon
  326. Mr. Lawrence Rising
  327. Mrs. Rising
  328. Miss A S. Rising
  329. Mrs. H. Hollister Robinson
  330. Miss Edith Robinson
  331. Mr. Charles S. Robinson
  332. Dr. Frederick W. Roman
  333. Col. Thomas Rothwell
  334. Mrs. Marjorie P. Ruedeman
  335. Mr. Donald Ruhe
  336. Mrs. Anna L. Rumpf
  337. Master Edgar J. Rumpf
  338. Miss Madely Rutherford
  339. Mrs. Fris Ryan
  340. Mr. Emil Schmid
  341. Mr. Joseph Schmid
  342. Mrs. Aline M. R. Sederguist
  343. Mr. Robert F. Seiffert
  344. Mrs. Seiffert
  345. Mrs. Zella M. Scott
  346. Mrs. Alice V. Sheehan
  347. Mr. Renshaw S. Sherer
  348. Mr. Renshaw D. Sherer
  349. Mr. Samuel J. Sherer
  350. Mrs. Sherer
  351. Mr. H. T. Silvius
  352. Mrs. Silvius
  353. Mrs. Martha Singleton
  354. Mrs. Ethel Sirody
  355. Mrs. William H. Sisson
  356. Mrs. Gertrude Skinner
  357. Miss Grace Slater
  358. Mrs. Arra M. Small
  359. Mrs. Jessie Lee Smith
  360. Mr. Donald Smith
  361. Miss Anna Lee Smyth
  362. Mr. R. K. Spofford
  363. Mr. H. Spofford
  364. Mrs. Winnifred K. Spofford
  365. Mr. Amasa D. Sproat
  366. Mr. W. A. Steiger
  367. Mrs. Steiger
  368. Miss Bertha M. Stearns
  369. Mrs. Lucy C. Steinberger
  370. Miss Aileen B. Stern
  371. Dr. Theodore Stone
  372. Mrs. Stone
  373. Mrs. Matilda Stewart
  374. Mr. Richard C. Stratford
  375. Mrs. Stream
  376. Mr. Grant A. Strebel
  377. Mrs. Cornelia Stubblefield
  378. Dr. Glenn L. Swiggett
  379. Mrs. Swiggett
  380. Miss Mary K. Terrall
  381. Miss Elsie W. Terrall
  382. Miss H. Thomas
  383. Col John R. Thomas
  384. Mrs. Thomas
  385. Mrs. Vera V. Thompson
  386. Major Lionel Thorsness
  387. Mrs. Lillie T. Tibbitts
  388. Mrs. J. F. Townsend
  389. Mrs. John K. D. Trask
  390. Miss Francis D. Trask
  391. Prof. Charles L. W. Trinks
  392. Mrs. Trinks
  393. Capt. Charles Ubel
  394. His Excellency Tobias Uribea
  395. Miss Mary Uribea
  396. Miss Olga Uribea
  397. Mrs. Frances T. Valle
  398. Miss Joyce Valle
  399. Dr. G. W. VinaI
  400. Mrs. Vinal
  401. Master Francis Vinal
  402. Miss E. A. Vinton
  403. Mrs. Nora Wainright
  404. Mrs. Julia S. Wallers
  405. Mrs. Amelia Wardrop
  406. Mrs. Margarel Washburn
  407. Miss Mary S. Wagner
  408. Mrs. Myrtle Webb
  409. Miss Florence Weber
  410. Mrs. Jessie B. West
  411. Rev. Edward C. Wheatcroft
  412. Mrs. Wheatcroft
  413. Miss Wheatcroft
  414. Major Edward L. White
  415. Miss D. Whitford
  416. Mr. B. W. Whitlock
  417. Mr. H. N. Whitman
  418. Mrs. Whitman
  419. Mr. Harold B. Whitmore
  420. Mrs. Whitmore
  421. Mr. Chester K. Whittier
  422. Mrs. Whittier
  423. M. W. A. Wilcox
  424. Mrs Wilcox
  425. Mrs. Angie Williams
  426. Miss Elizabeth Williams
  427. Mrs. Minnie M. Wilkinson 
  428. Mrs. Lilian A. Winkle
  429. Mr. John Witzel
  430. Mr. Arthur M. Wolkiser
  431. Mrs. Mary E. Wood
  432. Mrs. Susan O. Woodcock
  433. Mr. Council Brooke Woolen
  434. Mrs. Gladys B. Woolen
  435. Mrs. Maurice Wyman
  436. Mrs. Sanborn Young
  437. Mrs. Mary B. Ziegler
  438. Mrs. Minnie C. Zanetti

Additional Passengers

  1. Mrs. Stella A. Brasch
  2. Dr. Michael J. M. Chamezski
  3. Miss Phoebe E. Davis
  4. Miss G. Doris
  5. Mr. Morris Lewin
  6. Mr. James A. Moore

Not on Board

  1. Miss June Davis
  2. Mrs. E. G. H. Hickey
  3. Mr. Daniel Fraser
  4. Mr. Wilhelm Fricke
  5. Mr. O. L. Johnson
  6. Miss Charlotte Meacham
  7. Miss Mary Mossman
  8. Mr. D. Tomasic
  9. Master James Tuck
  10. Mr. Ralph A. Wells
  11. Miss Ida Zbinden

Errata

  • Dr. Benjamin C. Adelman should read Dr. Benjamin B. Adelman
  • Major B. McKay Greeley should read Lieut. B. McKay Greeley
  • Capt. H. F. T. Hoffman should read Lieut. H. F. T. Hoffman

SUMMARY

  • Cabin: 442
  • Tourist: 256
  • Third Class: 120
  • Seapost Officials: 2
  • Commander, Officers and Crew: 573
  • Total Souls on Board: 1393

Passenger Information

(Subject to Change)

High Seas Mail.—United States Postage Rates and Stamps are used when mailing letters, and such letters should be posted in the ship's letter box in the ordinary way.
The mail bag is closed a few hours previous to arrival.

Rates on letters to all countries except United States, Canada, British Colonies, Great Britain and Ireland, five cents for the first ounce, and three cents for each additional ounce or fraction.

Ship to Ship.—Radiograms are also accepted for passengers on other ships, for which the charge is 16 cents per word.

Seats at Tables.—Applications may be made to the Second Steward in advance, or on day of sailing on board the Steamer.

Smoking.—Passengers are requested not to smoke in the Main Dining Saloon or Social Hall.

Orchestra.—This vessel carries an orchestra which will play daily at the under-mentioned times and places :

  • 1 p.m. to 2 p.m., Dining Room.
  • 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., Social Hall.
  • 7 p.m. to 8 p.m., Dining Room.
  • 9 p.m. to Midnight, Social Hall.

Dancing.—Dancing in the Ball Room commences every evening at 9 o'clock.

Deck Games and Amusements.— Deck Quoits, Shuffleboard, Bull Board and other games are provided on deck. Baseball, Golf, Volley Ball, Deck Tennis, Shuffleboard, Quoits, and all the familiar ocean games are also available. Deck Stewards will furnish them.

Chess, Draughts, Dominoes, etc., can be obtained on application to the Social Hall or Library Stewards.

Books.—Books are obtainable from the Library upon application to the Steward in charge.

Divine Services.—On Sundays at hours to be announced on shipboard.

Barber, Hairdresser, and Manicurist.—The Barber's hours are from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m.

A Clothes Cleaning and Pressing Room is in charge of an expert attendant. A printed tariff of charges may be obtained at the Purser's Office.

Boots and Shoes will be cleaned if left outside stateroom door.

Notice. -Passengers are warned that professional gamblers are reported as frequently crossing on Atlantic steamers.

Life-Belts.—Passengers are earnestly requested to familiarize themselves with the use of life-belts and the location of lifeboats for the customary drill held on each voyage of this vessel. Full instructions are given on a printed card posted in your Stateroom.

Photographic Dark Room. A dark room fitted with all the necessary equipment has been installed for the use of passengers who wish to have photographs developed during the voyage.

Travelers' Checks.—The United States Lines has placed on board its vessels American Express checks which may be secured from the Purser on application.

Medical Attention. -The Surgeon will be in his office for the treatment of passengers requiring his attention from 9.30 to 10.30 a.in., from 4 to 5 p.m., and 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. His services are available at any hour in cases of urgency. In cases of illness originating on board or after the departure of the steamer no charge will be made for these services, and such medicines as are prescribed by the ship's Surgeon will be furnished without extra expense to the passenger.

In cases of illness not originating on board, the Surgeon is permitted to make a nominal charge, subject to the approval of the commanding officer.

Berthing of Passengers.—No changes can be made except officially by the Purser.

Deck Chairs and Rugs may be hired for the voyage on application to the Deck Steward, rental $1.50 each.

Reservations.—Passengers de dring to secure reservations for return to United States can do so by consulting the Purser.

Exchange of Money. The Purser is prepared, for the convenience of passengers, to exchange a limited amount of money at rates which will be furnished on application. A receipt will be issued covering each exchange transaction.

Baggage. —All inquiries regarding Baggage on board ship should be made at the Baggage Master's Office.

On disembarking, passengers are specially requested to claim their baggage before leaving the Customs Baggage Room, otherwise considerable delay and extra charge for carriage may be incurred in forwarding to destination any baggage not accompanying passengers.

The United States Lines accepts no responsibility or liability for baggage or parcels left on board—except by arrangement with Baggage Master.

It is recommended that passengers insure their baggage, as the Lines' liability is strictly limited in accordance with contract ticket. Baggage insurance can be arranged at any of the Lines' offices.

" Passengers desiring to reforward to storage or to deliver to another party, pieces of baggage, and packages of various kinds, are requested to deliver same to the Ship's Baggage Master, who is the only one designated on the ship competent to receive them and forward them, so as to avoid complication with the Customs regulations of the various countries.

The Company accepts no responsibility for any articles handed over by passengers to any member of the Ship's Personnel, other than above."

Baggage Room. -All baggage not placed in cabins is stowed in the Baggage Room, where access can be had to it during the voyage if required.

Valuables.—The United States Lines are not responsible for theft of valuables or money kept in Staterooms. The same should be placed in charge of the Purser for deposit in his safe, and a receipt will be given on the Company's form.

Payments. -Passengers should obtain a receipt from the Purser, on the Company's form, for any additional passage money, excess baggage or freight charges, etc., paid on board.

Dogs are carried at the Owner's risk. The Company's charge is $20.00 each, regardless of size. Arrangements for carrying dogs should be made by communicating with the UNITED STATES LINES, or if this has not been done, the Purser should be notified.

Passengers are notified that cats and dogs cannot be landed in Great Britain without considerable delay unless a license has previously been procured from the Board of Agriculture, London. Forms of license must be obtained by direct application to this Department in London before the dog is taken on board.

Freight. All of the steamers operated by the United States Lines and American Merchant Lines are combination freight and passenger ships. They are modern in every respect and some are equipped lor carriage of considerable cargo under refrigeration.
For rates and space apply to United States Lines, Freight Traffic Department, 45 Broadway, New York.

Suggestions and Complaints.—Suggestions, complaints or criticisms of service or of personnel should be addressed to the President, United States Lines Operations, Inc., 45 Broadway, New York City.

Reduced Cabin, Round Trip Rates are effective for steamship travel during the following periods :

  • Eastbound : August 16 to May 15.
  • Westbound : October 16 to July 15.

There will be a reduction of 12 per cent, front the combined one-way fares, that is, the regular Eastbound (outward) rate combined with the regular Westbound (prepaid) rate.
Should passengers sail one way during the above periods and one way in the " high " season, the reduction will apply for the " off " season sailing.

Both eastbound and westbound tickets must be taken out at the same time.

This arrangement gives passengers an opportunity to combine European tours. It also meets the desires of passengers who, while wishing to benefit by the special round trip rates, wish to travel one way via the St. Lawrence route and one way via New York.

Latitude and Longitude. -Latitude means "distance north or south of the equator," and longitude means distance from the Meridian at Greenwich—near London. Both are recorded in degrees, minutes and seconds. At the Equator, a minute of longitude is equal to a nautical mile, but as the meridians converge after leaving the equator, meeting at the Poles, the size of a degree becomes less. Sailing eastward a ship moves against the revolution of the earth, thus her course makes her gain time; while if she were sailing to the westward, with the movement of the earth, she would lengthen her time.

Changing the Clock.—Between New York and London there is a difference in time of five hours, and as the sun rises in the East, as we say, when the ship is going eastward she meets sunlight earlier each day and thus gains time. Exactly how much is computed each day at noon, and the ship's clocks are immediately set at the correct time for that longitude. On a vessel which makes the crossing in five days the clocks will be set ahead each day approximately an hour ; on slower ships, of course, less. Going westward the clock is set back daily in similar fashion.

The Barometer.—Next to the mariner's compass and chart the barometer is the most important aid to navigation ever invented. Many persons know that a barometer is an instrument for recording changes in the weather, and the student of physics is taught that this is done by measuring the weight or pressure of the atmosphere. A rising barometer denotes the approach of good weather, a falling barometer, the reverse. A sudden fall warns the mariner to be on the look-out for a severe storm. The barometer was invented during the seventeenth century by Torricelli. The ship's barometer, which is kept in the chart room, is very different from the original device. It traces a barometer chart, recording the atmospheric pressure throughout the voyage.

Ocean Lanes and Distances.—Transatlantic steamships follow certain lanes or tracks, unless prevented from so doing by stress of weather, or work of rescue or relief or other unforeseen circumstances. From August 24 to January 14 a vessel going eastward follows the short track, and from January 15 to August 23 the long. Going west the short track is followed from August 15 to January 14, and the long from January 15 to August 14. Following these lanes makes for safety and enables vessels better to meet the exigencies of weather conditions.

Measuring by Sound.—It is possible to determine by sound how far distant a passing ship is if she blows her whistle or in case of a warship if she fires a gun. If the steam from a vessel's whistle is seen and ten seconds elapse before the sound is heard, she is just 2 1/10 miles off. If one second elapses, she is distant slightly more than 1/5  of a mile ; if five seconds, a little more than 1 mile ; if twenty seconds, 4 1/5 miles.

Port and Starboard. —Formerly the two sides of a ship were called " Starboard " and "Larboard," the two prefixes being derived from old Anglo-Saxon words meaning, respectively, " loading " and " rudder," and the word " board " meaning side. The term "Larboard" has given place to the word " Port." To "port the helm" carries a vessel to starboard, and to " starboard the helm " carries her to port. The French equivalent for port is " Babord," and starboard is " Tribord."

The Tides.—The surface of the ocean rises and falls twice in a lunar day of about 24 hours and 52 minutes. The tides do not always rise to the same height, but every fortnight after the new and full moon they become much higher than they were in the alternate weeks. These high tides are called Spring Tides, and the low ones Neap Tides. The close relation which the times of high water bear to the times of the moon's meridian passage shows that the moon's influence in raising the tides is two and one-half times greater than that of the sun.

The Gulf Stream.—By far the most important as well as best known of the great ocean currents derives its name from the Gulf of Mexico, out of which it flows between Cuba and the Bahamas on the one side and the Florida Keys on the other. In its narrowest portion the Gulf Stream is about fifty miles wide, and there it has a velocity at times of as much as five miles an hour. Flowing in a north-easterly direction along the American coast, its current gradually widens and its velocity diminishes.

Reaching the banks of Newfoundland it turns and sweeps across the Atlantic. Then, dividing into two portions, it sends one arm down toward the Azores and the coast of Morocco, while the other passes near the shores of the British Isles and on to Norway.
As it emerges from the Gulf of Mexico it has a temperature of 84 degrees in summer, higher than that of the ocean at the equator. Even by the time it has reached mid-Atlantic it has fallen no more than 14 degrees. Its effect upon the climate of Great Britain and the north-west coast of Europe, 4,000 miles away from the Gulf, is to raise the winter temperature about 30 degrees above what would be the normal temperature of those latitudes.

 

Front and Back Cover, United States Lines SS George Washington Cabin Class Passenger List - 8 September 1931.

Front and Back Cover, United States Lines SS George Washington Cabin Class Passenger List - 8 September 1931. GGA Image ID # 1652dccb33

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