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Port of Trondheim (Trondhjem), Norway

Port of Trondhjem circa 1906.

Port of Trondhjem circa 1906. GGA Image ID # 145337d9c2

Overview of Trondhjem, Norway in 1906

Trondhjem is built on the Trondhjem fiord, and occupies the delta formed by the river Nid, with suburbs extending up the surrounding hills. With its 40,000 inhabitants it is the third town in Norway in point of size. It consists of the inner town, Ilen, and Østbyen, including Baklandet. It is connected by railway with Christiania and the North of Sweden.

The Railroad Station at Trondhjem (Jerbanestationen) on the Waterfront circa early 1900s. The railway station lies north of the town near the harbor.

The Railroad Station at Trondhjem (Jerbanestationen) on the Waterfront circa early 1900s. The railway station lies north of the town near the harbor. GGA Image ID # 14535357c1

The railway connection with Sweden is of special importance from the fact that Trondhjem, with its ice-free harbor the ear round, is in winter the port of the adjoining parts of Sweden whose coasts are blocked with ice for months. The timber exported from the northern parts of Sweden will also probably be sent via Trondhjem, instead of as formerly being confined to the Baltic.

The original harbor was the mouth of the river, to which smaller ships still make their way, but all greater shipping is now confined of the new harbor, an extension of the River Nid protected by a mole.

Elven med Søbeder, literally translates as The Elf with Seabed, in Trondhjem circa 1906.

Elven med Søbeder, literally translates as The Elf with Seabed, in Trondhjem circa 1906. GGA Image ID # 14535444b5

The shipping and trade of the town are very considerable. The principal export articles are copper, herrings, cod liver oil, timber, wood pulp and celluloid.

The lumber of sailing ships belonging to Trondhjem owners is 70 and of steamers 43, amounting to a total of 14,440 tons. Trondhjem is intimately connected by steamer not only with the districts round the fjord, but with all the harbors round the whole Norwegian coast.

Trondhjem, with its latitude 630 25’ N, is without comparison the most northerly town in Europe of its size, and when we remember that this is the latitude of Greenland mercury freezes in winter, we cannot help being astonished at this northern city’s genial climate. 

Trondhjem's summer corresponds to that of the South of Ireland, its winter to the mild winter of Dresden. The fiord is always ice-free, and even the river is very seldom frozen at the mouth.

Panorama of Trondhjem from a Postcard dated 24 July 1908.

Panorama of Trondhjem from a Postcard dated 24 July 1908. GGA Image ID # 1453a9ece5

The streets are well laid out, well-paved, and well lighted by both gas and electricity from the Municipal Gas Works and Electric Lighting Works. The shops are modern and contain a good selection of goods in all departments. The number of industries is considerable.

There are many large factories in the town and its immediate neighborhood. The local telephone system is up-to-date and much taken advantage of. Trondhjem is connected with the rest of Norway and the north of Europe by both telephone and telegraph.

The National schools are well managed and equipped with large modern buildings. There are, besides these, several higher schools and teaching establishments in town. 

A Technical University is being built at Gløshaugen, an eminence on the south side of the town. This University will be the center of technical knowledge and technical research in Norway.

Raunkloen in Trondhjem circa early 1900s.

Raunkloen in Trondhjem circa early 1900s. GGA Image ID # 1453f9efa5

Trondhjem has a Municipal Free Library furnished on modern lines (12 Kjøbmands Gade).

A Biological Station in Hegdalen close to the town is maintained in connection with the Society of Science.

Stiftsarkivet (the archives of the province) is open 10-2, 7b Bispegaden. The Theatre is in 18 Prinsens Gade.

Trondhjem has good modern hospitals and infirmaries. A large new up-to-date Municipal Infirmary with epidemic ward is situated at Øen, and a Hospital for Incurables in Kongens Gade. There is also an epidemic hospital at Ilsviken.

A Steam Kitchen occupies 30 b Kongens Gade.

One of Norway’s three large Jails for male criminals is in 83 Kongens Gade. In connection with it is a salesroom containing a large and varied stock of articles made by the prisoners.

The Custom House, Harbor office and Pilot office are situated near the harbor.

Husflidsudsalget (Shop for the sale of Cottage Industries) 14 Nordre Gade, ought to be noticed by travelers. Here may be seen many handsome products of Norwegian national cottage industry.

History of Trondheim, Norway as of 1906

Trondhjem, (in early times Nidaros, i. e. the mouth of the River Nid), is the cradle of the Norwegian monarchy, the ancient royal city founded in the year 997 by King Olaf Tryggvessan, who built here a Royal Castle (of wood, but in those days considered magnificent) and a church.

The castle and the houses surrounding it were soon reduced to ashes by Svein Jan (the Earl Sveyn), but were afterwards rebuilt by King Olaf the Saint.

The latter king introduced Christianity, encountering the resistance of the heathen chiefs who were a continual thorn in his side. In the battle of Stiklestad in the year 1030 King Olaf the Saint died a martyr’s death and his body was buried in Nidaros, but afterwards enclosed in a silver shrine and placed on the altar of Olaf Kyrre’s Christ Church (the Cathedral).

The inhabitants of Norway, Sweden and Denmark in great crowds made pilgrimages to Trondhjern to honor the relics of the saint, and the town soon became the richest in Norway. Besides the Cathedral there arose 9 parish churches as well as several other churches and monasteries.

In 1151 an archiepiscopal see was established, and several Norwegian kings have been crowned in the Cathedral. At Øren (i. e. the delta) the celebrated Øre Thing was held.

In the course of later centuries Trondhjem suffered much from civil war, pestilence, siege and particularly from fire. A series of fires laid the town entirely or partly in ashes. When the reformation came, the pilgrimages ceased. St. Olaf’s shrine and the treasures of the cathedral were carried off and the saint’s body buried in a nameless grave. The monasteries disappeared, as did also the churches, with the exception of two. The town had long before ceased to be the residence of the Norwegian kings.

Trondhjem, as well as the rest of Norway fell under the sway of the Danes. In the Peace of Roskilde the town was ceded to the Swedes and taken possession of by them in the year 1658. But the Norwegians, after a siege, won back their ancient city, and have kept it ever since.

Trondhjem’s great significance for Norway had not passed out of the people’s memory. Although Christiania had become Norway’s capital and the place of residence of its kings, yet the Act of Constitution of the 17th of May 1814 ordained that all future kings of Norway should be crowned in Trondhjem.

Communications, Hotels etc. of Trondhjem, Norway as of 1906

Trondhjem can be reached from Christiania both by steamer and rail. The railway station lies north of the town near the harbor. The night express train covers the distance from Christiania to Trondhjem (562 km.) in about 17 hours.

The large passenger steamers sail up the river and lay to in the lower harbor, where the passengers can go ashore at once. Busses from the hotels and porters with handcarts meet the traveler both at the quay and the railway station.

Hotels

(German, French and English spoken).

Britannia Hotel, Dronningens Gade (large stone building with comfortable rooms, central heating, lift, electric light, bath, garden. Much patronized).

Hotel d’Angleterre, Nordre Gade, corner of Karl Johans Gade (electric light, bath). See adv. no. 17.

Grand Hotel, corner of Krambodgaden & Olaf Tryggvessøns Gade.

Hotel Scandinavie, corner of Olaf Tryggvessøns Gade & Krarnbodgaden.

Strums Private Hotel, 24 Nordre Gade, opposite Hotel d’Angleterre. See adv. no. 29.

Fru Matzows Private Hotel, 17 Munkegaden, Market Square.

Fru Havigs Pension & Private Hotel, 18 Rjøbmandsgaden.

Restaurants

In most hotels.

Also

Frimurerlogen (Free Masons’ Hall) Restaurant. See adv. no. 24.

Grand Café, at the theatre (Theatre restaurant). See adv. no. 51.

City Café & Restaurant (in Hotel Scandinavie), corner of Olaf Tryggvessøns Gade & Krambodgaden. See adv. no. 47.

Tivoli (Hjorten) at Lien.

Hjalmar Hansens Restaurant, 30a Kongens Gade.

Café "Bikuben", Olaf Selsbak. See adv. no 51.

Confectioners & cafés

Fr. Hahns Café, 4 Nordre Gade. See adv. no. 28.

Horns Café, 38 Munkegaden. See adv. no. 45.

E. Erichsens Café, 4 Vor Frue Gade.

Places of Entertainment

Tivoli (Hjorten), at Lien (reached by electric tram, variety entertainment, theatre, concert.

Public baths

In Dronningens Gade 1 a, warm baths.

In Harrnonien (Market square).

Østre Folkebad, Nedre Baklandet.

Vestre Folkebad, Hospitalslakkene.

For sea baths

Bathing house on the mole, west of the railway station. Reached by boat from Ravnkloen.

Post & Telegraph Office, corner of Kongens Gade and Nordre Gade, opposite to Vor Frue church.

Tourist offices

F. Beyer, 16 Dronningens Gade, corner of Nordre Gade.

Bennett, 12 Dronningens Gade.

Cook’s Tourist office, corner of Nordre & Kongens Gade.

Conveyances

Four-wheelers can be had at Torvet (Market square) or Lille Torvet, and at Bakke bridge (Baklandet side). There is a table of fares for short distances. Two-horse conveyances cost 50 percent extra. For drives in the neighborhood of the town there is no fixed price.

The electric tramway runs through the town in the direction of east and west. It is municipal property and managed by the town council.

Consulates

Belgium, Thams, Chr M., Consul, 30 Nordre Gade.

Brazil Hansen, H. J., Viceconsul, 38 Kjøbmandsgaden. Klingenberg, Ingvar, Consular agent, 1 Krarnbodgd.

Denmark, Finne, Jacob, Consul, 50 Rjabmandsgaden.

U. S. America, Berg, Claus, Consularagent, 46 Kjøbmandsgd.

France, Thams,Chr. M., Consular agent, 30 Nordre Gade.

Italy, Larsen, Hans J., Consular agent, 5 Fjordgaden.

Netherlands, Bachke, Arild, Viceconsul, 17 Fjordgaden.

Russia, Klingenberg, H. F., Viceconsul, 22 Kjøbmandsgd.

Spain, Getz, N. J., Consular agent, 28 Kjøbmandsgaden.

Great Britain & Ireland, Kjeldsberg, Francis, Viceconsul, 15 Olaf Tryggvessøns Gade.

Germany, Jenssen, A., Consul, 40 Kjøbmandsgaden.

Austria & Hungary, Somrnerschield, Edv., Consular agent, 7 Dronningens Gade.

Banks and money-changers

Norges Bank, corner of Kongens Gad e & Kjobmands Gd.

Privatbanken, 14 Sondre Gade. See adv. no. 59.

M. H. Lundgreens Enke, 46 Kjobmands Gade. See adv. no. 11.

Nordenfjeldske Rreditbank, corner of Dronningens Gade & Søndre Gade. See adv no. 33.

Jenssen & Co., 40 Kjøbmands Gade.

Trondhjems Handelsbank, 13 Søndre Gade.

Sights of Trondhjem

The principal streets of Trondhjem form right-angled parallelograms and are from 30 to 36 meters broad: This unusual breadth is intended to lessen the danger in case of fire, as the majority of the houses in town are still two-storied buildings of wood. Now, however, the use of wood for building is forbidden and large stone and brick buildings are quickly replacing the older wooden houses.

In the majority of streets in the inner town avenues of trees have been planted, and add a grace to their surroundings. Several of the streets form a very pretty picture with mountains and lofty stretches of country in the background.

The Fortress of Munkholmen.

The Fortress of Munkholmen. GGA Image ID # 1454148daa

From the streets which run north and south a fine view may be had of the Fjord with the island fortress of Munkholmen. To the cast, along the side of the river Nid, runs Kjøbrnands Gade with important business houses and storehouses built on piles half over the river.

Stiftsgaarden in Trondhjem.

Stiftsgaarden in Trondhjem. GGA Image ID # 1454447231

Of the streets running parallel to this, the most important is Munkegaden (Monk street). Here, near the market place, is the Stiftsgaarden, a large wooden building erected in the 18th century.

This is, without doubt, the largest and most imposing wooden building in northern Europe and has been fitted up to furnish a Royal residence in the northern part of Norway. The rooms are large and bright, adorned with Rococo decorations and paintings, and furnished with fine Rococo furniture. Outside, between the wings, is a little garden.

Kongens Gade in Trondhjem.

Kongens Gade in Trondhjem. GGA Image ID # 1454a4137f

A part of Stiftsgaarden has been used for many years by the High Sheriff as an office. The most interesting of the streets that run east and west is Kongens Gade.

At the point where it intersects Munkegaden we have the market-place in the center of the town Near the market place we have the Police Office and in the same building a great number of municipal offices, among others that of the Burgomaster.

In Kongens Gade we have the Hospital Church and Vor Frue church (vor Frue = our lady). Beside the latter there is a little park in which has been raised a bronze copy of Bissen’s statue of the Norwegian naval hero Peter Tordenskjold, the original of which is in Holrnen church in Copenhagen. Tordenskjold was born in 1690 in Trondhjem.

Right opposite this statue, on the north side of Kongens Gade is Trondhjems Sparebank (Savings Bank). The 2nd story’ is occupied by the Nunstforeningen (Art Gallery).

The gallery may be seen on Sundays from 11.30 to 2, entrance free, or on Wednesdays from 1 2 to 2 on payment of 25 øre (3 1/2 pence). The same building contains the Fishery Museum, open Monday, Wednesday and Friday 10-1, and worth a visit.

On the other side of the street, stands the Free Masons’ Hall, containing a beautiful hall used for concerts and entertainment, and the Stock Exchange or Bourse. In this division of the same street are also the Town Hall, the Bank of Norway and the Central Fire Station.

At the end of the street is a band-stand from which a military band discourses music every Sunday, Wednesday and Friday from 12.30 to 1.30.

In Erling Skakkes Gade which runs parallel to Kongens Gade is the Royal Scientific Society (Det kongelige norske Videnskabernes Selskab). Every traveller ought to pay a visit to its museums.

The natural history collections and the prehistoric collections are very considerable, especially those concerning Trondhjem and its surrounding country.

There is great abundance of Norwegian animals, minerals, antiquities and coins. Entrance is free on Sundays and Wednesdays, from 12 to 1 30. At other times a charge of 25 ore is made. The library of 70,OC)0 volumes is well worth a visit. An old Norwegian Stave church i. e. a church built of timber placed endwise) from Holtaalen stands in the yard.

Dronningens Gade in Trondhjem.

Dronningens Gade in Trondhjem. GGA Image ID # 1454cb2e18

The Museum of Industrial Art (lKunstindustrimuseet) is situated at the corner of Søndre Gade and Dronningens Gade. In the course of a comparatively short time, a model collection of the greatest interest has been got together. The objects are exhibited in a specially instructive manner.

On the left is an image of Dronningens Gade circa 1900

At the corner of Munkegaden and Erling Skakkes Gade lies the Cathedral School, and at the south end of Munkegaden stands the School of Higher Technical Education, a fine building of red brick. The street ends in Trondhjem’s principal sight

The Cathedral

Trondhjems Domkirke in Trondhjem.

Trondhjems Domkirke in Trondhjem. GGA Image ID # 1454da70d0

South of the Cathedral lies Kongsgaarden (the King’s House) as it has been called. It was originally the residence of the archbishops, and was subsequently used as a dwelling for the feudal lords. It is now used as Artillery Arsenal, and may be seen on application on the premises.

Bakke Bridge in Trondhjem.

Bakke Bridge in Trondhjem. GGA Image ID # 145508bc21

Two bridges, Bakke Bridge and By Bridge, cross the river to Baklandet and Ustbyen, and two others, lying south-west of the Cathedral lead over to Oen.

West of the town lies lien. It has both a Protestant and a Catholic Church. We have here the place of entertainment before mentioned - Hjorten or Tivoli.

The Immediate Neighborhood of Trondhjem - 1906

The neighborhood of Trondhjem presents a most attractive sight to the traveler. The whole valley of the Nid is surrounded by mighty hills which form a wide circle round the town. Pretty villas climb up the green slopes.

On a hill to the east of the town (72 meters above sea-level), stands the fort of Christianssten, built in the years 1681—84. After crossing the upper of the two eastern bridges connecting the opposite banks of the river Nid, We reach in 10 minutes a road which leads to the left to the bastion with the flagpole. This point commands a magnificent view.

The town stretches out at our feet, and beyond it towards the north the deep blue fiord, whose high mountain shores loom in the distance. Chrstianssten is no longer used as a fort, but it still serves as fire lookout and salute battery.

A drive to Rotvold is most attractive. Through the suburb of Baklandet, passing the Engineering Works (Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted) and two Docks, we reach in half an hour the promontory of Ladebammeren. Here we are among the scenes of the life and struggles of the Earls of Lade.

The most famous of these, Haakon Jan, repelled with energy the dangerous assault of the Joins-vikings and was for 30 years the ruler of Norway, and both his ancestors and his successors have made themselves conspicuous in Norway’s history. In the vicinity lies the farm of Ringve once owned by Tordenskjold’s father.

The view of the fiord from Ladehammeren is very pretty. After having passed Ringve we reach Rotvold Lunatic Asylum, a great handsome hospital for the insane, lying amid beautiful surroundings.

Then the drive can be continued to Reitgjærdets Leper Hospital and back to town over the heights of Bkesevold (109 meters above sea level).

Starting from the Cathedral, and walking down Munkegaden we have before us the rocky little isle of Munkbolmen. It lies about 2 kilometers from the town. Admittance free. In summer a motor boat runs at intervals. The lighthouse keeper is an interesting guide.

Shortly after the year 1100 a monastery was founded on the island. It belonged to the order of St. Benedictine and was most frequently called the monastery of St. Laurence in Holm. When the reformation came, the monastery fell into decay and the island lay waste until 1.658 when a redoubt was built between the ruins.

Some time later a regular fortress Was built, the main part being the dungeon, the round tower, which was not quite completed as late as 1680. In this tower Count Griffenfeldt, once King Christian the Sth’s all-powerful minister was imprisoned 18 long years — from 1680 to 1698.

The island is surrounded by walls and grass-covered ramparts. On entering the gateway, we see before us the round tower, consisting of two parts, a tower divided into rooms by partitions, and a round wall which bore 9 cannons.

This wall has since been partly demolished, and the remains covered with a vaulted roof. The interior of the tower was quite altered in 1840; the only remains left of Gniffenfeldt’s room is a portion of a window. From the ramparts there is a wide and beautiful view.

To the south the whole of Trondhjem may be seen covering the delta of the river Nid. Stenberget rises above it with its pretty villas and with Sverresborg.

The naked Gjeitfjeld and the lovely gardens of Munkaunet can be clearly seen, as well as the Iron Foundry Trolla Brug. At the foot of Stenberget we can see lien, formerly separated from the town by fortifications. On the shores of the fiord lie great timber stores, and the harbor protected by a mole.

A walk up Stenberget is recommendable. The way is up a steep hill to the left of the music hall, Hjorten. From the top there is a glorious view of the town. Somewhere here the old road to Nidaros (Trondhjem used to run, and the pilgrims called the place Feginsbrekka (the hill of the glad).

Having arrived at the spot where they could see the famous city of the saint at their feet, they hailed the joyful consummation of a laborious journey. Immediately above it lies Sverresborg, a flat-topped height, 209 meters above sea-level. King Sverre built a castle here in the 12th century.

Turning to the east we descend by Aasveien, a broad road with villas on both sides. Here We have a beautiful and most picturesque view of Trondhjem, of the winding course of the river, of the fiord and the fjelds in the distant background. The road leads us back to Llevolden at Hjorten.

The travelers should not fail to visit the plantation in the Ilbergene (Elster Park). The way runs past Hjorten and Mallehaugen, along the foot of the hills called Ilbergene, and then by a multitude of idyllic forest paths up the side of the hill This mountain side Was formerly a wild and desolate wilderness, but during the last few decades it has been planted with fir and pine.

This plantation, the second largest in Norway, is municipal property. The trees are growing well. Over two millions have been already planted. At a height of about 170 metres we meet with a shore line, or rather two lines, now nearly hidden by the growth of the trees, suggesting that the land has formerly lain much lower than now.

From this point, as from a higher one (the top of the mountain Vottakammen) we have a superb view of town and fiord and their beautiful surroundings. In the distance we can see the snow-clad summits on the Swedish border. Refreshments can be had at a little pavilion called "Kilden".

Other Excursions in the Neighborhood Surrounding Trondhjem - 1906

1. To the waterfalls

Nedre Lofus (Lower Lerfos) near Trondhjem.

Nedre Lofus (Lower Lerfos) near Trondhjem. GGA Image ID # 14551d6948

The two great falls of the Nid, called Store Lerfos and Lille Lerfos, 8 kilometers distant from the town, constitute one of the chief attractions in the neighborhood of Trondhjem.

They are reached by rail to Selsbak, and from thence by foot, in 35 minutes. But it is more interesting to drive in an open vehicle observing the scenery on the way. Even if we make the upward journey by train, it is better to walk back, as the roads are good.

The road from Ilen follows the course of the river. Near the Lower Fall (Lille Lerfos) there is a pretty restaurant in Norwegian style, called Fossestuen. The view from the veranda is beautiful.

A path leads to the Lower Fall and a carriage road to the Upper Fall. Both the falls are surrounded by a forest of pines and firs. The upper fall is divided by a rock into two parts, and the mighty column of water leaps over a precipice 32 meters high, with such force that the spray rises into the air like a white fog.

Above the fall, where the greenish Water, at a breadth of 100 meters, prepares for its fall, we can see through the crystal stream the wonderfully formed "soap-stone" mountain.

The fall has now been taken into the service of industry and supplies energy to the Trondhjem Electric works, which have their power station here. There is a summer restaurant, Fosseskandsen, at the upper fall. The lower fall is not so high, only 23 meters, but in its fall over an almost perpendicular cliff, it presents an imposing spectacle.

2. To Graakallen

This excursion takes from 2 1/2 to 3 hours. We start from lien, keeping to the right of Hjorten, and ascend the old Byns road, passing through a part of the plantation. We pass Gramskaret. from which we have a delightful view of Trondhjem and the fiord. After 15 minutes’ walk the summit of Graakallen comes into view.

Fjeldsæter Tourist Hotel circa 1906.

Fjeldsæter Tourist Hotel circa 1906. GGA Image ID # 145552beb0

10 minutes later the road turns to the left and leads over Tungen to Little Graakallen, where Fjeldsæter Tourist Hotel stands. Farther on we reach Skistuen (clubhouse and refreshment room) and thence up to the summit, 561 meters above sea level). Refreshments can be had in a hut on the top.

The view is grand and imposing. On one side we see the open sea with its innumerable bays and islands, on the other the mountains on the Swedish frontier, on a third Snehætten in the Dovre chain.

We can return by the new road leading from Fjeldsæter Tourist Hotel over Sverresborg and Aasveien. Vehicles should use this road both up and down. The vicinity of Graakallen and Fjeldsæter is a capital place for winter sports, and on winter Sundays it is the scene of great activity on "ski" and "coaster". The hill at Graakallen is known by winter sportsmen all over Norway.

3. To Selbu lake

This excursion takes 2 days. The route goes south by rail to Heimdal, thence on foot to Teigen (3 hours) or by carriole (ordered in advance) to Brettem. Both these places lie at the western extremity of the lake, Selbu lake lies 161 meters above sea level, has an area of nearly 60 square kilometers, is in many places 170 meters deep, and has the river Nid flowing through it. In summer a steamer crosses the lake 5 times a week. On the S. E shore stands the church.

Not far from here, at Havernæsset, the Nid after flowing through the valley of Tydalen, flows into the lake. In the neighborhood we have the posting station of Marieuburg and Selbu Sanatorium (i. e. Hotel) where travelers can spend the night. Next day the journey is continued by boat over the lake to Setsaas on the north side and thence by carriole to Fuglem.

The route is rich in beautiful scenery. We rejoin the railway at Hommeivik a station on the Meraker railway, and the seat of a considerable timber trade, and from thence back to Trondhjem.

4. To Jonsvandet (John’s lake)

Jonsvandet, circa 10 kilometers distant from town, is a favorite holiday resort. It has very beautiful and varied surroundings. Mountain and wood alternate with well-built farmhouses. Many Trondhjemers have built villas here. It is easily reached from town.

One ought to drive as far as Kuseth, a farmhouse where refreshments may be had. Foot-passengers had better go by rail to Ranheim, and from thence, past Reppegaardene and over Skaret to Jervan and Kuseth. They can return over Oset and thence by a forest path to Ranheim.

5. To Stenviksholm and Stiklestad

No one who wishes to get a full impression of the scenery and the historical associations of the surroundings of Trondhjem, should fail to pay a visit to the ruins of Stenviksholm castle and to Stiklestad. Stenviksholm is the only ruined castle in Norway.

It is now completely disinterred and a multitude of relics of a former age which were found among the rubbish are on show in one of the towers. The castle is most easily reached by railway from Trondhjem to Skatval or Langstein, from whence it is only a few "kilometers to the castle.

After an inspection of the ruins, the journey can be continued by the next train. This route ‘leads through an exceedingly beautiful part of the country. Wood and lake alternate with fertile plains and, judged by a Norwegian standard, thickly populated tracts.

The railway journey should be continued to Vaærdalen, from whence Stiklestad is reached by a drive through the lovely valley. Stiklestad churcb, one of the old provincial churches, is worthy of inspection.

On a hill close beside the church stands the well-known monument to King Olaf Haraldssen who fell here in 1030 in his struggle against the heathen peasants.

The battle of Stiklestad is one of the most memorable incidents in Norway’s history. It was a turning point in the development of the nation. The people repented their mutinous conduct and all active opposition to Christianity was broken down.

King Olaf was declared a martyr and canonized as St. Olaf. He became the patron saint of Norway. His shrine was the most sacred possession of the Cathedral and the anniversary of his death, the 29th July, was the principal set-day of the country for many hundred years. It was observed with great solemnity, especially in Trondhjem, to which pilgrims traveled from the whole of northern Europe to keep the feast of St. Olaf.

A short distance above Stiklestad at a farm called Moen, We have the best view of the result of the great land-slip, which on the night of the 18th of May 1893 carried away 11 large farms and several smaller ones. Over 100 human beings perished in this great revolution of nature. A considerable part of the "slip" has now been planted –

From Stiklestad the traveler ought to drive to Levanger, where a most beautiful view of the Trondhjem fiord and the surrounding country may be had from the heights to the east of the town. The journey back to Trondhjem should be by steamer, if the weather is good.

This trip by steamer is a delight to all who enjoy beautiful scenery. We pass several broad and fertile level tracts, such as Levangerskogn, Ytterøen, the fertile Frosta, and Tautra with its ruined cloister which can be seen from the steamer. The excursion to Stiklestad is one of the most interesting and attractive to be found in the neighborhoods of Trondhjem.

Bibliography

Trondhjem, A. Holbæk Eriksen & Co., 1906.

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