Cunard Passenger's Log Book - 1893

Front Cover, The Cunard Passenger's Log Book, RMS Campania 1893, 12,950 Tons, Length 625 Feet. The Cunard Steam-Ship Company, Limited, 1893.

Front Cover, The Cunard Passenger's Log Book, RMS Campania 1893, 12,950 Tons, Length 625 Feet. The Cunard Steam-Ship Company, Limited, 1893. GGA Image ID # 1bda5d7ed5

The Cunard Passenger Log Book is a fascinating booklet issued by the Cunard Steamship Company and contains a brief history of the Cunard Line and many exciting features. The RMS Campania is featured throughout the booklet.

Among these are portraits of the three founders of the line, Samuel Cunard. George Burns and David Mac Ivor, and the present chairman of the company. Lord Inverclyde, a son of George Burns, and five half-tone illustrations of the Campania, Etruria, Aurania, Servia, and Ultonia, interior views showing the first, second, and third-class accommodations of different steamers.

Images of the muster drill, fire drill, and boat drill of the Cunard service and diagrams exhibiting the comparative size of the company's ships from their first steamer. "Britannia" of 1840. with a gross tonnage of 1.154 tons to the Campania and Lucania of 1893, each of which has a gross tonnage of 12,950 tons, are also given.

Cunard Passenger's Log Book from 1893 provides a short history of the Cunard Steamship Company and a description of the Royal Mail Steamers RMS Campania and RMS Lucania. Comprehensive text. List of Cunard services. History of the Line, with an illustration of the Campania. Construction and Launch of the Campania, Fleet list. Blank pages for passenger's log. Specially prepared ads. Rates for All Classes, Superb color Graphics on covers, with an illustration of the liner.

Fleet of Steamships, Directors, Offices and Agencies

This section covers the fleet of the Cunard Line as of 1893, the Directors, the Principle Offices in Liverpool, and the primary agencies in the UK and Abroad. There are also the standard Eastbound and Westbound sailing schedules.

Fleet Of Steamships -- Ocean Service

  1. Campania
  2. Lucania
  3. Umbria
  4. Etruria
  5. Aurania
  6. Servia
  7. Gallia
  8. Bothnia
  9. Scythia
  10. Pavonia
  11. Cephalonia
  12. Catalonia
  13. Samaria
  14. Atlas
  15. Marathon
  16. Saragossa
  17. Kedar
  18. Morocco
  19. Palmyra
  20. Tarifa
  21. Aleppo
  22. Trinidad
  23. Cherbourg
  24. British Queen

The Cunard Steam Ship Company, Ltd.

Directors, Principal Officers, Principal Establishments, &c,

DIRECTORS.

  • Sir John Burns, Bart., Chairman Of The Board.
  • David Jardine, Chairman Of Executive Committee.
  • Wilfrid A. Bevan
  • Sir Wm. Bower Forwood.
  • William Cunard
  • John Williamson

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS—LIVERPOOL.

  • THOMAS BOUMPHREY, General Manager
  • ALBERT P. MOORHOUSE, Secretary
  • Commander WM. WATSON, R.N.R., General Superintendent
  • JAMES BAIN, R.N.R., Superintendent Engineer

PRINCIPAL ESTABLISHMENTS

Great Britain & Ireland

Liverpool

  • 8 Water St. (Head Office)
  • 1 Rumford Street.

London

  • Palmerston Buildings, Bishopsgate St., E.C.
  • 13 Pall Mall, S.W.

Glasgow-30 Jamaica Street.

Manchester—18 Brazenose Street.

Queenstown-3 Scott's Square.

Belfast-49 Queen's Square.

Abroad—Agents.

  • New York—Vernon H. Brown &Co., 4 Bowling Green.
  • Boston—Alex. Martin, 99 State St.
  • Chicago—F. G. Whiting, 131 Randolph Street.
  • Havre—James Winning, 21 Quai d'Orleans.
  • Paris—Antoni Drouard, 38 Avenue de I'Opera.

Sailings from Liverpool for New York every Saturday and alternate Tuesday; and for Boston every Thursday.

Sailings from New York every Saturday and alternate Tuesday; and from Boston every Saturday.

Schedule of Cunard Voyages and Rates

1893 Cunard Passenger's Log Book

THE CUNARD LINE.

ESTABLISHED 1840.

For over fifty years, these Steamers have an unequaled record for the safety and comfort of their passengers and take specified tracks on the Outward and Homeward Voyages, as adopted by all the leading Companies.

NEW YORK SATURDAY MAIL SERVICE.

Sailing from New York and Liverpool every Saturday calling at Queenstown.

  • Campania 12,950 tons Capt. HAINS, R.N.R.
  • Lucania 12,950 tons Capt. H. McKAY, R.N.R.
  • Etruria 8,119 tons Capt. WALKER, R.N.R.
  • Umbria 8,127 tons Capt. DUTTON.

FORTNIGHTLY TUESDAY SERVICE.

  • Aurania 7,268 tons Capt. A. McKAY
  • Servia 7,391 tons
  • Gallia 4,808 tons Capt. FERGUSSON

SALOON RATES.

  • Single Tickets from $60 to $175 or £12 to £35.
  • Return Tickets from $120 to $315 or £22 to £63.

According to the season of the year, the location of the room, and the Steamer chosen. Children between Two and Twelve, Half Fare.

SECOND CABIN RATES.

  • Single Tickets from $40 to $60 or £8 to £12.
  • Return Tickets from $75 to $110 or £15 to £22.

Children between Two and Twelve, Half Fare. According to the season of the year, the location of the room, and the Steamer chosen. Summer Season begins on 16th April and ends on 15th October. Winter Season starts on 16th October and ends on 15th April.

WEEKLY BOSTON SERVICE.

From Liverpool

  • Cephalonia 5,517 tons Capt. SECCOMBE.
  • Pavonia 5,587 tons Capt. WATT.
  • Catalonia 4,841 tons Capt. ATKIN.
  • Bothnia 4,535 tons Capt. THOMAS.
  • Scythia 4,557 tons Capt. HEVVITSON.

on Thursdays and Boston on Saturdays, calling at Queenstown.

SALOON RATES.

  • Single Tickets from $60 to $175 or £12 to £35.
  • Return Tickets from $120 to $315 or £22 to £63.

According to the season of the year, and the location of the room. Children between Two and Twelve, Half Fare.

SECOND CABIN RATES.

  • Single Tickets from $35 to $50 or £7 to £10.
  • Return Tickets from $70 to $95 or £13 to £19.

Summer Season begins on 16th April and ends on 15th October. Winter Season starts on 16th October and ends on 15th April.

STEERAGE RATES.—From $25 or 5 Guineas.

History of the Cunard Line

The Formation of the Cunard Line

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE CUNARD COMPANY.

THE CUNARD COMPANY occupies the premier rank amongst the many gigantic companies of our mercantile marine, whose great enterprise has placed Britain in the enviable position she holds amongst the nations.

The well-known care and strict surveillance exercised in the construction of its fleet vessels and the rigid discipline maintained in every part of the service have engendered well-merited confidence in the public and gained the Company a place second to none in the annals of shipping.

The shipping industry is generally in its gradual development, may well be traced in the history of this Line, in the substitution of new ships of superior types, to take the place of those which have been found wanting, by the advance of knowledge in shipbuilding and engineering.

1838

Up to this year, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty had been content to commit Her Majesty's Mails for America to the uncertain mercies of sailing vessels bearing the somewhat unpromising designation of " coffin brigs," and, although ships propelled by steam power had crossed the Atlantic at irregular intervals, from various European ports, within the previous 18 years or so, it was only in this year that Cunard demonstrated the practicability of establishing regular steam communication with America beyond a doubt.

Early in the spring, the wooden paddlewheel steamer Great Western sailed from Bristol for New York and, during that and the following year, made several successful voyages between these ports, which so impressed the then Government with the apparent superiority of steamships over sailing vessels, as a faster and more reliable means of transit for the Mails, that they immediately issued circulars broadcast, inviting tenders for the future conveyance of the American Mails by steam vessels.

One of these circulars found its way into the hands of Mr. SAMUEL CUNARD, a prominent merchant of Halifax, N.S., agent there for the East India Company, a man of penetrating intelligence, great energy, and strong determination.

Starting a line of steamers to connect the two countries had occurred to his mind as early as 1830. He immediately recognized that there was a golden opportunity to carry out his project under the auspices of the British Government.

Being unable to raise the necessary capital in Halifax, he proceeded without delay to London in the hope of enlisting the sympathy and financial support of merchants there, but meeting with scant encouragement, he went to Glasgow armed with a letter of introduction from the Secretary of the East India Company to Mr. Robert Napier, the eminent Clyde Shipbuilder, and Engineer. He was most cordially received by Mr. Napier, who promised to assist him in learning the object of his mission.

By his good offices, Mr. Cunard was soon made acquainted with Mr. GEORGE BURNS, a Shipowner already extensively engaged in the coasting trade between Scotland and Ireland and England, a wise, clear-headed Scotsman of rare administrative ability and significant practical experience, and possessed of much influence with the leading capitalists of Glasgow. He, in turn, introduced Mr. Cunard to his partner in the coasting trade, Mr. DAVID MACIVER, who, although then resident in Liverpool, was likewise a Scotsman and a man of excellent capabilities and comprehensive knowledge of the shipping trade.

Mr. Cunard had several interviews with these two gentlemen and expounded his proposals. With a far-sighted sagacity, for which both were distinguished above their compeers, fully comprehended the advantages of the undertaking without being dismayed at the accompanying difficulties and eventually intimated their readiness to throw in their lot with him.

A few days after that, a capital of £ 270,000 was subscribed. Mr. Cunard was enabled to tender the Admiralty a most eligible offer for the conveyance of Her Majesty's Mails once a fortnight between Liverpool and Halifax and Boston.

The British Government accepted his offer. A contract concluded for seven years between Her Majesty's Government and the newly formed Company, on whose behalf it was signed by Samuel Cunard, George Burns, and David Maclver, three names thenceforth indissolubly connected with the success of this famous concern.

Immediately after the contract had been fixed, the three managing partners set about fulfilling their obligations; Mr. Cunard making London his headquarters, Mr. Burns remaining in Glasgow at the seat of Government, and Mr. Maclver returned to Liverpool to superintend the practical working of the steamers. Still, before their arrangements were finally adjusted, the Admiralty saw fit to remodel the contract, requiring that the service be performed by four suitable steamships instead of three and that fixed sailing dates should be adhered to. Considering these more demanding conditions, the subsidy was raised from £. 60,000 to £. 80,000 per annum.

1840

The first four ships provided by the Cunard Company, or as it was then formally entitled "The British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company," were the BRITANNIA, ACADIA, CALEDONIA, and COLUMBIA, all wooden paddle-wheel vessels built on the Clyde in 1840.

From the very commencement, the Company distinguished itself for the care and discrimination in selecting its officers and crew, for which it is still remarkable.

The First Cunarder, the RMS Britannia of the Cunard Line.

The First Cunarder, the RMS Britannia of the Cunard Line. GGA Image ID # 1bd4654870

THE BRITANNIA, the pioneer vessel of the fleet, measured 207 feet long by 34 feet 4 inches broad by 22 feet 6 inches deep, with a tonnage burden of 1154 and an indicated horsepower of 740. Her cargo capacity was 225 tons, and Cunard fitted her to accommodate 115 cabin passengers but no steerage.

The other three ships' horsepower, passenger, and cargo accommodation were identical to those of the "Britannia," while their dimensions and tonnage varied slightly from hers.

Their average speed was 8;4 knots per hour, on a coal consumption of 38 tons per day. All of them were specially adapted for transporting troops and stores in times of war, and their available equipment was as complete as the light of the times suggested.

From the very commencement, the Company distinguished itself for the care and discrimination in selecting its officers and crew, for which it is still remarkable.

The inauguration of the Mail Service took place when the "Britannia" sailed upon her maiden voyage from Liverpool on Friday, 4th July 1840, which was the "Celebration Day" of the American Independence. Many viewed it as a coincidence indicative of future prosperity, although others regarded the Friday departure as ominous of misfortune.

However, despite maritime superstitious fears, the Britannia arrived safely at Boston, after what was then considered a rapid passage of 14 days, 8 hours, and experienced an unprecedented ovation from the inhabitants of that New England town.

Thus auspiciously inaugurated, the mail service was carried on with conspicuous regularity for three years when Cunard found that the increasing traffic demanded additional cargo, so the HIBERNIA was added to the fleet in 1843, and the CAMBRIA in 1845, these two being sister ships of larger dimensions, and more extensive passenger and cargo capacity than their four predecessors, and also of somewhat higher speed.

With this reinforcement, the business was continued with enhanced satisfaction to the public until, in 1847, the Government determined to double the Atlantic Mail Service.

1847 - 1852

A new contract was then entered into between the Cunard Company and the Government, whereby the Government provided that a vessel of not less than 400 horsepower and capable of carrying guns of the then-largest caliber should leave Liverpool every Saturday for New York and Boston alternately; and, in respect of these augmented sailings, the subsidy was raised to the substantial sum of £ 173,340 per annum, at which figure it remained until the end of 1867.

For the adequate performance of this new contract, Cunard built four new ships, the AMERICA, NIAGARA, CANADA, and EUROPA, and took their station in the trade as early as 1848, being followed in 1850 by the ASIA, and in 1852 by the ARABIA.

When building vessels, the aim of the Cunard Company has always been that each new ship should be superior to those which preceded it, and Cunard fitted the various additions with the latest improvements for the comfort and convenience of passengers. At the same time, a commendable caution has ever marked the conduct of the affairs of this Company.

Viewing SAFETY as its paramount consideration, its Managers have been chary of initiating the adoption of new theories involving possible risk to hull or machinery.

Although scientists had been urging since 1830 the adaptability of iron in the construction of ships' hulls, and for several years before 1852, had been recommending the adoption of the screw propeller, it was not until the latter year that the Cunard Company acquired sufficient confidence in either invention to give it a trial.

However, once convinced of their utility, Cunard lost no time taking advantage thereof; four iron screw steamships were added to the fleet in 1852, viz. :—The AUSTRALIAN, SYDNEY, ANDES, and ALPS -- and it is also worthy of note, in connection with these vessels, that they were the first belonging to this Company to be fitted with accommodation for emigrants.

1853

In 1853 the House of Commons appointed a Select Committee to enquire into the matter of Contract Packets, and the following extract from their report, presented to both Houses of Parliament, throws some light upon how the Cunard Company's transatlantic service was conducted:—" This line of Packets (the " Cunard) has of late years had to contend against "serious foreign competition.

We find that the vessels "employed in the line are much more powerful, and, of "course, more costly than is required by the terms of the "Contract, and that, as regards their fitness for war "purposes, they are reported by the Committee of Naval "and Artillery Officers as being capable of being made "more efficient substitutes for men-of-war than any of "the other vessels under Contract for the Packet service. "The service has been performed with great regularity, "speed, and certainty, the average length of the passage, " Liverpool to New York, being 12 days 1 hour 14 " minutes."

Notwithstanding that, in many respects, the adoption of the screw propeller had proved advantageous, Cunard found that passengers were as yet unwilling to take leave of the old paddlewheel, and in consequence, the Company built the Persia in 1856, an iron paddle steamer of 3,300 tons, and accommodating 250 cabin passengers.

The Last of the Paddle Wheel Ships by Cunard - Scotia, 1862.

The Last of the Paddle Wheel Ships by Cunard - Scotia, 1862. GGA Image ID # 1bd490d20f

The last of the paddle wheels, the Scotia, was built in 1862 on the Clyde; she was of iron, of 3,871 tonnages, accommodated 275 cabin passengers, and was one of the finest specimens of a mercantile vessel afloat. She reduced the record of transatlantic passages to 8 days 22 hours.

For several years, Persia and Scotia held the function of top favorites with the passengers in the American trade. Still, not even the possession of such crack ships as these enabled the Cunard Company to rest on its laurels. In the same year, 1861, was built the first of the screw steamers—the " China."

The Famous Cunarder Russia, 1867.

The Famous Cunarder Russia, 1867. GGA Image ID # 1bd48f209c

In 1867, the Clyde-built screw steamer, Russia, was added to the fleet, her gross tonnage was 2,960, and she carried 235 cabin passengers. This vessel quickly earned a reputation for speed and comfort, viewing with the Scotia as a passenger favorite; her fastest passage across the Atlantic was eight days 28 minutes.

1869-70.

The latest evolution in the science of marine engineering was the invention of compound engines, and into the working of these, the Cunard Company next directed inquiry. They were soon satisfied with the vast superiority of the new over the old method and promptly took action to avail themselves of the improved mechanism. The fine screw steamships, ABYSSINIA and ALGERIA, each of about 3,30o tons and 2,48o indicated horse-power, had just been completed and placed on the New York route. Unfortunately, they had not this latest improvement in driving power.

By the purchase of the Batavia, however, a screw steamer of 2,553 tons, supplied with machinery on the new principal, and by order of a sister ship to be named the " Parthia," of somewhat larger tonnage, and subsequently of the "Bothnia" and "Scythia," the Company brought themselves in line with the latest developments in shipbuilding.

Concerning the OWNERSHIP OF THE COMPANY, the original Shareholders were by degrees bought out by the founders until the whole concern became vested exclusively in the three families of Cunard, Burns, and Maclver. Upon the death, in 1865, of Sir Samuel Cunard, his shares were inherited by his son, Sir Edward Cunard, and at the decease of the latter in 1869, the Cunard interest devolved upon his brother, Mr. William Cunard. From that time until the present, the latest has continued to represent the Company in London.

The management at Glasgow remained long under the wise and skillful guidance of Mr. George Burns (created a Baronet, 24th June 1889); and, on his retirement from business about a quarter of a century ago, his mantle fell upon his eldest son, Mr. John Burns, of Castle Wemyss, now Sir John Burns, Bart., who has ever since been identified with the control of the Company's affairs.

Mr. David MacIver ably superintended the business in Liverpool until he died in 1845 when his brother, the late Mr. Charles MacIver, assumed the reins of office. The energy of the latter administration and untiring personal supervision lasted for nearly 35 years. At the end of this time, he retired from active participation in the affairs of the Company. He was succeeded by his sons, who had previously been admitted into the management but have since also retired.

1878.

It was considered suitable this year to consolidate the partners' interest by registering the Company under the " Limited Liability Acts." Accordingly, a Joint Stock Company was formed with a capital of £ 2,000,000, of which £1,200,000 was issued and taken by the families of Cunard, Burns, and MacIver as part payment for the property and business transferred by them to the Limited Company.

No shares were, however, offered to the public until 1880, when a prospectus was sent forth stating that "the growing wants of the Company's transatlantic trade demanded the acquisition of additional steamships of great size and power, involving a cost for construction which might best be met by a large public company," and intimating that Cunard then proposed to issue the balance of the capital.

The public received this announcement with a general interest. They rapidly subscribed the available shares for, the representatives of the three founders retaining a substantial financial stake in the concern—the Directors entrusted with the government the reconstituted corporation comprised men of the highest standing and business qualifications. Mr. John Burns was elected chairman of the Board. Under his experienced leadership, a bold and far-reaching policy has been steadily pursued, with the result that is evidenced in the splendid vessels composing the Cunard fleet of today.

One of the earliest duties of the Board was the consideration of yet another scientific discovery. As iron had superseded wood for ships' hulls, steel was about to supplant iron. A crucial investigation elucidated such facts as convinced the Directors that steel possessed greater strength than iron and superior flexibility. By its use, a critical saving would be effected in weight, as lighter scantling could be employed.

The RMS Servia of the Cunard Line.

The RMS Servia of the Cunard Line. GGA Image ID # 1bd4e9a0b4

So when they realized speed as an essential requirement of the expeditious spirit of the age and projected building a ship of leviathan size and unparalleled power, steel was the material selected for her construction. Thus was the order placed for the SERVIA, the largest and most powerful ship, except the Great Eastern, which up to that time had been built.

The Servia's tonnage was 7,392. She accommodated 480 cabin passengers and 75o steerage, and embodied all the most modern appliances conducive to comfort and safety, including the electric light, then first introduced on the Company's vessels. In December 1884, she made the passage between Liverpool and New York in 7 days, 38 minutes.

The Servia was quickly followed by other screw steamers, CATALONIA, PAVONIA, and CEPHALONIA, of 4,841, 5,587, and 5,517 tons, respectively, which were very successful and popular in the Boston trade.

1883.

The RMS Aurania of the Cunard Line, Shown Here as Transport Ship No. 20.

The RMS Aurania of the Cunard Line, Shown Here as Transport Ship No. 20. GGA Image ID # 1bd590f5cb

This year witnessed the advent of the AURANIA, a noble steel screw steamship of a new type concerning proportions. Hitherto it had been the rule for the breadth of the Company's steamers to be equal to about a tenth of their length, but, to secure greater stability, a more spacious saloon, and better staterooms, a departure was originated in this ship—her beam being increased to about an eighth of her length.

She was built on the Clyde, her tonnage was 7,269, and she accommodated 480 cabin and 700 steerage passengers. This year also saw the production of the celebrated screw steamship OREGON (7,375 tons), built to the order of a rival Company, with compound, direct-acting, inverted engines, calculated to attain a speed of 18 knots per hour, with a maximum coal consumption of 268 tons per day.

The Sister Ships Umbria and Etruria of the Cunard Line.

The Sister Ships Umbria and Etruria of the Cunard Line. GGA Image ID # 1bd5396ce7

On her third voyage, she made the Atlantic passage in 6 days, 10 hours, and 9 minutes, surpassing all previous records. She became famed as the "Greyhound of the Atlantic" and, in 1884, passed into the possession of the Cunard Company. This year, the Company also ordered those two famous ships, the UMBRIA and ETRURIA. The UMBRIA was delivered at the close of the following year, her sister ship, the ETRURIA, being handed over by the builders, the Fairfield Shipbuilding Company, in the spring of 1885.

These two vessels were unquestionable, at that time, the greatest triumphs of modern shipbuilding science. Their dimensions are in round figures, 501 feet long, 57 feet broad, 38 feet deep, gross tonnage, 7,718 tons, with accommodation for 550 cabin passengers and 800 steerage passengers. The Umbria and Etruria may put down their average speed at 19.32 knots per hour.

A remarkable feature in connection with these ships is the extraordinary regularity with which they have crossed the Atlantic since they left the hands of the builders. Their efficiency may have increased year by year, for it was in July 1892 that the "UMBRIA" made her fastest passage across the Atlantic, in 5 days, 22 hours, 7 minutes. In September 1892, the " ETRURIA " made her fastest passage, six days and 20 minutes.

1891.

Cunard again gave the contract to the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Ltd., Govan. This year, the Company placed an order for two steel twin-screw steamships of still greater power and speed, far surpassing every other vessel afloat in these respects. The first vessel, the CAMPANIA, took the water in September 1892, while the second one, the LUCANIA, was launched in February 1893.

While writing this notice, the CAMPANIA has incontestably proved her superiority by breaking not only all records of maiden voyages but by eclipsing on her first voyage from New York all that had hitherto been recorded; making the run home over the winter track, a distance of 2,899 miles, in 5 days, 17 hours, and 27 minutes, against the best previously recorded passage, that of the "CITY OF NEW YORK," in August 1892, over 2,814 miles (the summer track), in 5 days, 19 hours, 56 minutes.

The CAMPANIA and LUCANIA are unquestionably the greatest triumphs of modern shipbuilding and engineering science. The acme of perfection as passenger steamships, some further particulars concerning them will undoubtedly be interesting.

The profound changes which have taken place in shipbuilding since the Cunard Company came into existence about 50 years ago can best be grasped by instituting a comparison between the earliest and latest vessels of their fleet.

Comparison of the Cunard Britannia and Campania

  Britannia Campania
Length 207 feet 620 feet
Breadth 34 feet, 4 inches 65 feet, 3 inches
Depth 22 feet, 6 inches 43 feet
Tonnage 1,154 12,950
Horse-power 740 30,000
Speed 8 1/2 knots 21 knots
Accommodation 115 passengers 1,400 passengers

RMS Campania Construction and Launch

THE CAMPANIA.

(NOTE. -- The Lucania, the sister ship, is in all respects identical with the Campania.)

The contract for the building was signed by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Limited, Glasgow, in August 1891. The preliminaries necessary before the actual construction work was commenced at once engaged the attention of the chiefs of the various departments.

On account of the extreme length of the ship, it was necessary to rearrange the building berths. It was arranged to build this one on the western berths, adjoining the entrance to the Company's dock. It was laid down at an angle approximating more to the river line into which it was to be launched than would otherwise have been possible. The necessity for this will be recognized when we state that the vessel's length was greater than the breadth of the Clyde.

Preliminaries were being carried out. While these at this point. The vital question arose as to the general scantling of the Steamer.

The Strenght of the Plating

STRENGTH WAS THE FIRST, and we might say, the most important, point to be considered. Cunard finally decided that the minimum length of plates used in the ship's shell should be 25 feet and the breadth 6 feet. Each plate thus weighed over two tons. The bulk of the plates used are all of this size, but in many cases, notably below the machinery, the width was increased to nearly 8 feet. The thickness varied from M to I inch. The frames used were of the channel bar section and the beams of the ordinary Butterley bulb section.

The Keel Plate

The shipbuilders laid the Keel Plate on September 22nd, 1891, and the time occupied was remarkably short. The keel plate was formed of a broad plate 54 inches by 1 inch, with a doubling plate about an inch thick on the inside. The keel is not of the bar external form, which is now discarded in most large ships but is entirely internal. It is built of plates 4 feet 6 inches deep, extending right fore and aft, and having extreme angles on the upper and lower edges at their side.

These plates are connected to the bottom of the vertical internal keel plate, and together they form the main centerline girder of the ship. Under the engines, the beam is increased in strength and in-depth to about 8 feet and forms the base of the engine seating. A reference to the engraving of the bow framing will show this centerline girder of the ship.

The keel was set on a grade of 7/16 ins. to 1 foot. Before the shipbuilders ultimately laid it, constructing the double bottom was proceeded with, the first double bottom frame being erected about three weeks after the first keel plate was placed in position. The whole of the riveting within the range of this double bottom framing was done by hydraulic machinery.

Midship Framing, as Seen from Bow, 31 December 1891.

Midship Framing, as Seen from Bow, 31 December 1891. GGA Image ID# 1bd377b1bf

The double bottom having been sufficiently far advanced to admit the upper frames being erected, the shipbuilders started this work. Here one recognizes the time-honored ribs for the shipbuilder has been accused of taking his model from nature, the keel being the vertebrae, or spine, with its iron or steel ribs and skin; but the " Campania" has, so to speak, five spines, which we have described as longitudinal girders; the ribs or frames are of channel section, placed 3o ins. Apart, extend in one length from the double bottom to the upper deck stringer plate and the poop and forecastle stringers at the ship's ends.

These channel frames were strengthened at intervals by solid web frames, and subsequent, the machinery spaces were increased in number. The Butterley bulb beams carrying the deck platforms were fastened upon each alternate channel frame. These beams are of the most extensive section that has yet been rolled for the purpose. The maximum length of the channel bar used was about 50 feet in one continuous size.

December 30, 1891

The shipbuilders completed erecting the frames or ribs and fitting the deck beams in place by December 30, 1891. The ship's plating is arranged on the overlap system from the keel strake up to the underside of the main deck sheer strake. The butts of the upper and main sheer strakes and the strake between are connected by double butt strakes inside and outside.

The Bulkheads on the Campania

The vital matter of Bulkheads had full consideration in working out the design. About this time, the report of the Bulkhead Committee had been published, and so far as practicable, their suggestions were carried out. The sub-division is by athwartship bulkheads only, and of these, there are 18.

Center bulkheads have not been adopted except in the engine room, as they would have interfered seriously with the arrangement of the boilers, and would have given no compensatory advantage, for in the case of a ship divided by a center-line bulkhead, the flooding of a large compartment, say on the port side, as the result of an accident, would give the ship a heavy list, which is in itself a danger, and would probably necessitate the filing of a corresponding compartment on the starboard side, so that the immersion of the ship would not be less than with a filled compartment the entire width of the vessel.

The Fairfield Company has made the maximum length of the compartments amidships 65 feet. At the same time, at the ends, especially forward, where the risk of collision is greatest, the distance between the bulkheads is considerably reduced.

The sub-division of the vessel is carried out to such an extent that any two, and in many cases, even three compartments might be flooded with water, and the steamer remains in a perfectly safe condition.

Safe Condition of All Vitals of the Ship

All the " vitals " of the ship -- machinery, boilers, auxiliary appliances, & C. -- are in duplicate so that the flooding of one or two compartments cannot well altogether disable the propelling, lighting, or navigating, or indeed any of the critical machinery in the vessel. All the openings in the bulkheads are fitted with watertight doors.

As the " Campania " is classed as an armed cruiser for service when required by the British Admiralty, it was built to comply with their strength, buoyancy under disastrous conditions, and coal protection. It has, therefore, watertight coal bunkers at the side of and over the top of boiler compartments, forming a protection against modern quick-firing guns.

THE DECKS

The decks were all first laid with steel plating and were commenced early in May 1892, and by this time, the ship's superstructure was also commenced.

A unique feature has been introduced in constructing the shaded deck, whereby the roofs of the public rooms have been raised two feet or three feet above the ordinary level in a slight curve, forming what may be termed omnibus roofs. By this means, a height of something like 12 feet is obtained in the public rooms, which enhances the appearance, and improves the ventilation of these apartments.

On the shaded deck, there is a deckhouse for the accommodation of the navigating officers, who are all located near the main bridge, and a call in emergency cases. The bridge, which is carried on t-iron solid frames, extends the entire width of the ship and is about 6o feet above the water-line.

The weather decks are finished in teak, the others in yellow pine, 4 inches wide. These narrow planks give the decks a beautiful appearance.

The Stern Framing

About the end of June, the Stern Framing, one of the essential parts of the structure, was in the process of erection. The frame is of cast steel. In arranging the propeller brackets, it was decided to have a small aperture, thus bringing the propellers as near as possible to the ship's centerline. The stern tubes are contained within the bossing, making them accessible for inspection while the ship is at sea or in the harbor. The lining of the propeller shafts was supplied by Messrs. John Broadfoot & Sons, Glasgow, and part of the forging by Messrs. William Beardmore & Co., Parkhead Forge, Glasgow.

The Rudder of the Campania

The rudder is of the typical center fin plate pattern, with specially designed arms on either side and strengthened so that the pilot can throw it hard over when the vessel is going at full speed. The steering gear is also entirely underwater, the better to conform to Admiralty requirements. As the rudder had to be entirely underwater, it became necessary to have a plate of exceptional size, which could not be got in this country but was obtained from Messrs. Krupp of Essen, Germany. It measured 22 feet by 11 feet 6 inches by 1 1/4 inches thick.

THE LAUNCH.

The "Campania" was launched on Sept. 8th, 1892. Unqualified success attended it as a result of the most complete and thoughtful preparations made by the staff of the Fairfield Works.

View of Campania Taken During Launch, 8 September 1892.

View of Campania Taken During Launch, 8 September 1892. GGA Image ID # 1bd37683f3

While launching, the ship appeared to be. It was true, under perfect control up to the moment of taking the water, without any signs of "taking charge" or the ominous cracking, so frequently a source of anxiety to the uninitiated; and yet, the declivity fixed upon was such, that immediately the last dog-shores were knocked out there was no stoppage of the vessel for the slightest period.

She started on her career at once, slowly at first, and majestically, but not less indeed, and, gaining speed every second, was safely afloat in the Clyde, amid the plaudits of the assembled hundred thousand interested spectators. They thronged the banks on both sides. Everything worked so satisfactorily that the " Campania" was moored in the Fairfield Dock, which runs at right angles with the river, within 4o minutes of the launch.

The "Campania" was most appropriately released from her position on the ways and named by Lady Burns of Castle Wemyss. As in the case of the " Umbria" and "Etruria," the Directors have gone to ancient Italy for the name of this vessel and its sister ship. In the case of the "Campania," it is a felicitous name, promising much to the shareholders. That ancient province on the west coast of Italy was distinctive from all other provinces for its fertility, yielding in abundance corn, wine, and oil.

The " Campania," after her launch in September, was berthed under the 130-ton sheerlegs, which was designed and constructed at Fairfield, to have her machinery placed on board and, in pursuance of describing the work as it progressed, we shall now describe the Engines and Boilers.

Engines and Boilers

The construction of the engines was practically completed within twelve months of the order being placed -- it represented about 60,000 indicated horse-power for both ships. The more significant part was erected in the workshops and placed in the vessel within the year -- a performance which at once testifies to the splendid organization of the staff in the Fairfield engine department.

Back View of Engines Showing Thrust on the Campania.

Back View of Engines Showing Thrust on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bda5dc089

In the arrangement of the engines, there are five cylinders-2 high-pressure, one intermediate, and two low-pressure. Still, the great advantage of well-balanced parts of the 3-crank engine is maintained by placing the high-pressure above the low-pressure cylinders, one pair of high-pressure and low-pressure being at the forward, and the other pair at the after-end of the engine, with the intermediate cylinder in the center. The adoption of five cylinders reduces the diameter of each low-pressure cylinder to more moderate dimensions.

The diameter of the cylinders are as follows; -- high-pressure (2), 37 ins.; intermediate (I), 79 ins.; and low-pressure (2), 98 ins. The stroke of the piston in each case is 69 inches.

The details of the engines were soon determined upon, and patterns made, for within five or six weeks from the signing of the contract, or, to be precise, on September 15th, 1891, the first casting was delivered at the Fairfield Works. It was one of the cylinder liners: these liners are all cast iron. The last of the castings and forgings were produced about the end of February, and the whole of the machinery finished by the end of March.

The two engines were erected entirely before the end of June. Their height from the base of the engines to the top of the cylinder is 47 feet. The bearing surfaces are large in all cases, as will be seen from the illustration. As will be seen, the Fairfield Company has adhered to the type of bedplate, column, and condenser, which has been adopted and proved satisfactory in so many of the notable vessels they have constructed.

It is scarcely necessary to state that all the cylinders are steam-jacketed and are fitted with automatic steam traps to return water to the hot well. The condenser is rectangular in section and fitted with 3/4 in. brass tubes. And is built up in three parts, and divided into two portions, so that each low-pressure engine has its condenser.

The Circulating Pumps

At the back of the condenser, there are two air and two circulating Pumps, each driven by a lever from each of the crossheads of the fore and aft engines. Also, from the crossheads are worked pumps for lifting the water from the condenser to the feed heater.

The circulating pumps and engines are four in number. They have been constructed in such a manner that they will be equal to the work of circulating while working on the compound principle with steam at the full pressure, exhausting into the low-pressure steam chest, or condenser, at the option of the engineer, and, at the same time, with such an arrangement of the cylinders that, by a simple hand-slide valve, both cylinders may receive the high-pressure steam while pumping from the bilge, and therefore working to suit the maximum requirements.

By this method, the economy is affected while circulating, and one can obtain the full power for bilge pumping. The size and weight of the engines are considerably reduced. It is the first time the system has been adopted for work of this kind, but it will likely be primarily adopted in the future.

Returning to the main engine, one may note that the high-pressure pistons are fitted with Ramsbottom rings, while the intermediate and low-pressure pistons have each ring fitted with Downie's packing. The piston and connecting rods are made from steel ingots used for each of the connecting rods weighing, rough, 25 tons, this being reduced to tons. Maclellan's composite triple-expansion packing is also used, as supplied by Messrs. George Maclellan & Co., Glasgow Rubber Works, Glasgow.

The whole of the shafting was supplied by Messrs.Vickers, Sons & Co., Ltd., of Sheffield. The crankshaft is 26 in. in diameter, and each of the three interchangeable parts weighs 27 tons, so, with the thrust shaft, which is 14 feet long, the weight of each crankshaft is about 1 ton. Each thrust bearing has 14 rings of the standard horseshoe type. These bearings are in the recesses at the after-end of the engine room bulkhead but are tied direct to the foundations of the engines.

With the bossing out of the stern, it has been rendered possible to dispense with the usual outside shafting, and this enables the propeller shafts to be carried in the stern tube, as in the ordinary single screw steamer. The propeller shafts are each 24 ins. in diameter and are fitted in about 24 ft. lengths, each having two bearings. The pillow blocks are of cast iron lined with white metal.

The Ship's Propellers

Propellers on the Campania

Propellers on the Campania (Stern of SS Campania Before Launching Showing Twin Screws and Rudder.) GGA Image ID # 1bd2d0c063

The stern bushes are of the usual design, brass lined with lignum vita, the shaft being sheathed at the bearing to suit. The propeller bosses are also -of Vickers' steel, and the blades are of manganese bronze, cast at Fairfield.

Each blade weighs about 8 tons, and a simple calculation brings out the exciting fact that had pennies been used, five and a half million would have gone into the casting of the six blades. After the propeller shaft's end, one of Dunlop's governors is fitted, while governors have also been fitted to the marine engines.

Another safeguard is provided in an emergency gear fitted in connection with the steam and hydraulic starting and reversing gear. This emergency gear is such that the engines are stopped automatically if a predetermined rate of speed is exceeded.

The Starting Gear

The starting gear is of a well-known type introduced some 20 years ago. The engine consists of a steam cylinder in which a piston and rod by one stroke handle the links, the movement being controlled by a water cylinder with automatic valve gear. The novelty in connection with this gear is the addition of a governor, by the operation of which, when a shaft breaks or dangerous racing takes place, the links will immediately be shifted into mid gear.

It is well known that any attempt to control the speed of triple-expansion engines without operating on the distribution of steam in each cylinder has, up to the present, not been satisfactory. Therefore, valves on each cylinder are necessary with the ordinary governor, and considerable complication is the result.

Starting Gear on the Campania.

Starting Gear on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bda5e06a1

It has, therefore, been considered much better to have marine engines strong enough to race up to, say, 50 to 100 percent on their typical speed and, after that, to stop them or to bring them to be dead slow. The engineer's attention is once called, and one can take proper steps. One or two recent accidents, notably that to the " City of Paris," suggested the necessity of something being added to the reversing engine which, while simple, would be unfailing in action. Accordingly, the " Paris" was fitted with such a governor as is now adopted on the Cunarders, and, after prolonged tests, in which it frequently stopped the engines in awful weather, the " New York" was also fitted, and now the engineers in charge are free to leave the reversing handle with confidence.

The Reversing Engine

The Reversing Engine is of the oscillating type. The governor consists of a simple lever, which moves vertically with the main engines, and in which is mounted a weight supported by a spring so set that little movement takes place at normal speed. The lower steam cylinder is attached to the column of the main engines, while the piston rod is attached at its upper end to the weight shaft lever, which actuates the reversing links.

The reversing lever is attached to the end of a lever, its other end embracing and working the starting engine valve gear. The last-named lever works in a fixed fulcrum, while its other end is engaged with a steam piston and rod, working in a steam cylinder fitted in a three-way cock, so set that constant pressure is exerted on the top of the piston when the marine engines are working at a safe speed.

Above this lever is arranged the governor lever already mentioned, which derives a reciprocating motion from the marine engine to the extent of 2 inches, and which can be conveniently connected by a rod to the indicator gear or other reciprocating part. This governor lever works on a fixed fulcrum and, at its other extremity, carries, as we have said, a small weight supported on a spiral spring in a box.

The weight is guided by a rod and collar and has a groove at its lower part, into which one arm of a bell-crank lever gear, while the other arm is formed like a hook, and is ready on emergency to engage and move the valve lever of the steam cylinder upwards.

When the main engines are working at their standard speed in bad weather, the spring is so set that the weight (which moves at each stroke of the engines in virtue of its momentum) shall not cause the hooked arm of the bell-crank lever to approach too near the valve lever.

Should the main engines from any cause exceed a safe limit, the weight, by an acceleration of speed, compress the spring, causing the sharp hook to engage the valve lever at once. By this device, the motion of the main engines is arrested simultaneously in all the cylinders. The result is that steam is admitted below the piston, exhausted from the top, lifting its end of the lever, and depressing the fulcrum of the reversing lever, which carries with it the starting engine valve gear, turning steam onto the top of the piston of the starting engine, and so moves the links into, or somewhat past, mid-gear.

The Boilers

Boilers on the Campania. (Complete Set of Boilers of the Campania Ready to Be Placed on Board 30 June 1892.)

Boilers on the Campania. (Complete Set of Boilers of the Campania Ready to Be Placed on Board 30 June 1892.) GGA Image ID # 1bd350359a

The illustration of the boilers affords some indication of the steam-producing power provided for the Campania.

The 12 main boilers are double-ended, 18 ft. in diameter, and 17 ft. long. There are 12 large boilers and two others for auxiliary purposes. The total number of furnaces is 102.

The ship's main boilers, it may be remarked, are the largest yet made for the pressure -- 165 lbs., and some of the plates measured 20 feet long by 7 feet broad, the thickness being inches. The boilers are fitted longitudinally, three in a row. They are placed in two groups, in two water-tight compartments, separated by a large coal bunker, occupying the entire width of the ship and 65 feet of its length. The total coal-carrying capacity of the bunkers is so great that the vessel will, when employed as an armed cruiser, keep the sea for long periods and be the more efficient for patrol duty. Safety valves are fitted to each boiler.

For each set of boilers, there is a funnel with a double casing; the inside diameter exceeds 19 feet, while the top is 13o feet from the bottom of the ship.

Given the space occupied by the boiler spaces and coal bunkers, the funnels are a great distance apart, about 130 feet. The feed arrangements have been most carefully worked out, and, as in all other parts of the machinery, everything is in duplicate to provide against contingencies. It is one of the most complete installations yet placed in any vessel, comprising, as it does, a feed heater, main feed, auxiliary feed, ballast, general service pumps, and also evaporators.

There are four evaporators capable of producing 30 tons of freshwater per day. The engines and boilers were all fitted in position on board by the end of the second week in December 1892, and the engines were turned under their own steam on the 26th of that month, or 15 weeks after the vessel was launched.

ELECTRIC LIGHTING.

First Style of Electric Light on the Promenade Deck on the Campania.

First Style of Electric Light on the Promenade Deck on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bda72a1c1

The electric lighting installation has been carried out by Messrs. Siemens Bros. & Company, Limited, London. The generating plant is in duplicate so that in no case can there be an entire collapse, two sets being placed on each side of the centreline watertight bulkhead.

There are about 1350 lights, and these require an output on the part of the dynamos of 42,000 watts. The current is distributed throughout the ship by about 50 miles of wire, thickly insulated in vulcanized india rubber, and laid on the return conductor system.

The brilliancy of the illumination, and the ease with which it can be regulated, are in marked contrast to the candles and oil lamps of a few years ago. The immense improvement in the atmosphere due to the absence of The whole lamps would give a light equal to about 22,000 candles, absorbing 135 horsepower. Then, apart from the immunity from accidents, less room is required.

Second Style of Electric Light on the Promenade Deck of the Campania.

Second Style of Electric Light on the Promenade Deck of the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bdaecd03a

In mounting the various lights in the ship, the general principle has been adopted of placing the lamp where it will not be inconvenient but will afford the most diffused light. All the engine and boiler room fittings for exposed parts are water-tight, the glass globes bedding in rubber rings and holds in position by metal straps. The reflectors for the hatchways, each with eight 16 candle power lamps, have flexible wires and may be hung up in any convenient position. It is easy to conceive that on a calm evening, the broad expanse of a beautifully laid and well-kept deck may occasionally become a brilliantly lighted ball scene.

Dynamos and Engines on the SS Campania.

Four Dynamos and Engines on the SS Campania Manufactured by G. E. Belliss & Company of Birmingham, England. GGA Image ID # 1bd38ecfc5

The motor for the barber's shop is driven from the electric light mains. The electric current is generated by four dynamos, each driven by a separate engine by Messrs. G. E. Belliss & Co., Birmingham. Any two of them are equal to running the 1350 16-candle power lamps in the ship and the large reflectors and the searchlight. In addition to the electric light, the vessel is fitted up with an elaborate installation of electric bells, comprising 13 bell indicators, with an aggregate of 370 transmitters, the power being supplied by Siemens' dry batteries.

NAVIGATING APPLIANCES.

Crow's Nest.

Crow's Nest. GGA Image ID # 1bd832ff28

The incredible speed to be attained by the " Campania" and the necessity, therefore, of having the ship under full control, under all circumstances, have been fully recognized.

The lookout is perched in the crow's nest, on the foremast. It has been placed sufficiently high to allow the lookout to get in from the ratlings, which is much more convenient than the usual small ladder fitted close up against the mast.

The crow's nest is about two feet from the water level. There is a splendid command of the horizon; indeed, the look-outman can see all round within a radius of 15 nautical miles if the atmospheric conditions are favorable.

Deck View with Navigating Appliances.

Deck View with Navigating Appliances. GGA Image ID # 1bd814b13b

As the fog frequently extends relatively, but a few feet above the water surface, it will sometimes occur that he may see the masts and sails, or funnels and smoke, of approaching vessels, even when the hull is obscured. Notwithstanding his great height, he is within hailing distance of the steamer's bridge.

The Captains Bridge

The captain's bridge has been built of great strength, immediately before the forward funnel, so that it is as far aft as practicable and therefore clear of the heavy seas which break on board in the season of hurricanes.

Telegraphs & Wheel House on Captain's Bridge.

Telegraphs & Wheel House on Captain's Bridge. GGA Image ID # 1bd83bf462

The framework is made entirely out of steel. It is not much larger than a sentry box, but it is built with a conning tower's strength, although not precisely with the solidity. It has upon it only a small house for the shelter of the seaman at the telemotor operating the steering gear at the end of the ship, while a small compartment of the same erection serves as a working chart room. A double set of instruments is on the bridge for directing the entire staff forming the watch, a telegraph for communicating with both engine rooms, and for replies to signify compliance with orders.

Waste Steam Pipe and Whistle.

Waste Steam Pipe and Whistle. GGA Image ID # 1bd841d3d8

The steersman in the tower has the telemotor at hand for moving, by hydraulic power, the heavy steam tiller gear aft under the water lines. Still, lest this connecting gear should get out of order, there is a telegraph communicating directly with the steering house below. There are also telegraphs to the deck machinery, warping capstans, windlass, &c., so that when the ship is being moved, the attendants are under the direct control of the commander on the bridge.

Compasses

All the Compasses on board are by Lord Kelvin and have been constructed with care and precision, which marks the work of his lordship's constructive establishment. The standard compass is placed amidships between the two funnels. In addition to the main bridge, there is an additional bridge aft above the poop deck houses. In any serious accident to the fore bridge, one can navigate the ship with almost equal convenience.

Steering Gear

The Steering Gear is one of the essential items in the navigating appliances of the ship. All the gear is below the waterline. A condition insisted upon by the Admiralty for vessels that, as in this case, are designed to act as an armed cruiser in time of war. To afford some idea of the strength and solidity of the construction of the steering gear, one may mention that it weighs 45 tons, the bulk of it being forged and cast steel.

The Rudder

Windlass Capstans, etc. on the Campania.

Windlass Capstans, etc. on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bdb39abbd

The RUDDER, as has been already noted, is of large area, being 12 feet broad and 20 feet deep, and, with the assistance of twin engines working in opposite directions, may turn the vessel in her length. The necessity of a large and powerful rudder will be appreciated when the great speed is recalled. Still, it has been fully met in this case, and the vessel will veer from her course almost the moment the captain gives the word of command to the man at the telemotor on the bridge.

The general arrangement of the navigating and other auxiliary machinery on deck is exceptionally compact, especially on the forecastle. The stress from the seas continually breaking over the ship would render any difficult erections a source of trouble, if not of danger.

Anchor Chain on the Campania.

Anchor Chain on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bdb6585ad

Everything, too, is of the strongest make. The mechanism is all under the deck so that only solid structures are visible -- the two 5-ton hoods of the windlass, the warping capstans, the well battened down the hatches over the fore hatchways, the cowls of ventilators, and two heavy break-waters, formed of angles and plates, the latter bent toward the bow the better to resist the sea, for the forecastle has only the ordinary galvanized rail.

Everything connected with the windlass is massive, necessitating special strengthening of the deck where it is fixed. The power required will be appreciated when we state that the cable is 3 inches in diameter, while the anchors are 10 tons in weight and the heaviest yet made.

SEARCH-LIGHT.

The searchlight is the most serviceable navigating appliance, which is now becoming a usual adjunct in our larger steamers. The searchlight has a projector of 16 ins. in diameter, having a light equal to about 2000 candle-power. In this case, a departure has been made from the ordinary practice in Atlantic vessels when the searchlight is fixed. The system adopted, especially in the Suez Canal, has been followed.

The apparatus is carried in an iron cage, accommodating the operator. It is made with a slot that fits into the ship's stem and thus guided and lowered down to the water's edge when the vessel is nearing her anchorage. In this position, the cage can be fixed temporarily to the stem by bolts, and the operator can flash the light along the surface of the water, lighting the whole area for a great distance so that it is easy on the darkest night to pick up buoys. The light is down at the water's edge, instead of on the bridge or main deck, which ensures that there will be no deep shadows between the rays and the water.

 

Interior Light Towers

Interior Light Towers.

Interior Light Towers. GGA Image ID # 1bd844ef8d

The light towers, which are strongly built of steel, are alongside the bridge (see illustration showing a view inside).

There are, of course, two -- one on the port, the on one and a starboard side of the ship, and two lights on to the tower. The upper one is illuminated with electricity, while the lower light is fitted with oil in the usual way, to be a stand-by for use should the electric current fail. The mast-head light is also illuminated by electricity, the wire running free on block and tackle.

PASSENGER ACCOMMODATION.

The general plan of the arrangements is to accommodate the first-class passengers in the center of the vessel, the finest staterooms being on the promenade and upper decks. The ordinary state-rooms are primarily on the upper and main decks, with a few on the lower deck, and all the first-class accommodation is forward of the engines.

The second-class passengers are located on the same deck aft of the engines, with the broad expanse of poop for the promenade, while the third-class passengers are accommodated on the lower decks.

Vista of Promenade Deck (Promenade Deck of Campania Looking Forward.)

Vista of Promenade Deck (Promenade Deck of Campania Looking Forward.) GGA Image ID # 1bd33e9a17

The great size of the ship admits to many concessions to passengers, the rooms being, in many cases, of unusual size, mainly as regards height of the ceiling, while one berth and two-berth rooms have been introduced.

The promenade space, too, is ample and, in all cases, is sheltered. There is an excellent stretch of a clear deck on either side of the ship so that by a circuit of the vessel four times, the passenger traverses one mile and yet scarcely appreciates the fact. The uneven line of the deck houses, too, affords several spaces suitable for deck seats, where the ship will shelter the passengers from the breeze. None of the areas on the promenade deck is required for navigation. The officers have the shade deck and bridge, where they are not interrupted in their work.

The Grand Stairway on the RMS Campania.

The Grand Stairway on the RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd45365ea

The Grand Stairway leads not only to the principal public rooms on the ship but to most of the best staterooms. , It opens from the promenade deck and has a curved roof with an ample roof light. The staircase is richly paneled in teak and polished, the upper part being enriched with Japanese gold paper.

The stairs have wide treads with a slight rise. There is a center hand-rail and the usual side railings so that when the ship suddenly lurches, a passenger will have a better opportunity of readily finding support. This is essential (although not always provided) with stairs sufficiently wide for four or six passengers to ascend or descend abreast.

Vista of Promenade Deck.

Vista of Promenade Deck. GGA Image ID # 1bd85236d2

On the extensive landings on both promenade and upper decks, lounges have been provided, suggested by the preference of these places as rendezvous.

THE DINING SALOON

The First Class Dining Saloon is placed on the main deck and is an apartment of immense size, the length overall being about 100 feet and the breadth 62 feet. The walls are in old Spanish mahogany, of a design at once chaste and effective. The general style of the Dining Saloon suggests the Italian.

The Grand Dining Saloon of the RMS Campania Showing the Multiple Decks.

The Grand Dining Saloon of the RMS Campania Showing the Multiple Decks. GGA Image ID # 1bd6f92009

The upholstering is in dark red-figured frieze velvet, and the curtains are in keeping. Here it may be interesting to note that there is a set of curtains suitable to the general scheme of decoration, for both summer and winter, for all the public and several private saloons.

An important feature is the height of this room, which is 10 feet throughout, and even this extra foot to the usual height will be a welcome concession to comfort in ensuring better ventilation. Another feature is the want of uniformity in the saloon. An advantage is that various air and ventilating shafts, stairways to lower cabins, partial bulkhead, etc., break up the area.

They detract from the appearance of size, which is not a disadvantage, but, by judicious planning, many nooks and corners have been secured, where, by arrangement, small parties may regularly dine in almost complete seclusion instead of being mixed in the general company. Indeed, strolling through the saloon, the belief grows upon one that those seeming excrescences, with their immense beveled mirrors, or richly carved panellings, result from careful planning, with the object of satisfying the desire of small parties.

Breafast Menu Card from the RMS Campania, 10 September 1898.

Breafast Menu Card from the RMS Campania, 10 September 1898. GGA Image ID # 1bd6397509

There are four tiers of large tables running fore and aft, with the usual style of revolving chair, having carved on the back the lion rampant holding a globe in its forepaws, the well-known logo of the Cunard Company. Accommodation is provided for the whole of the first-class passengers in this saloon. In contrast, a small saloon adjoining is specially equipped for the children and servants of first-class passengers. This enables all the passengers to dine for one hour, instead of in two groups, as is nearly always the case in large steamers.

Instead of having the usual marble top with brass rail, the sideboard is made entirely of Spanish mahogany, in keeping with the general finish of the saloon, and, as it is 25 feet long, it presents a handsome appearance with its great expanse of beveled mirrors. The public rooms on the promenade deck being of unusual size, the dining saloon is designed purely as a salle manger, and the great necessity of perfect ventilation has been fully recognized.

Corner of the First Class Dining Saloon - RMS Campania.

Corner of the First Class Dining Saloon - RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd6ddeabe

The system adopted is somewhat novel. Each of the side-lights in the saloon, 20 on either side, is of exceptional size and diameter. By using Utley's patent ventilator, which we shall describe later, the inlet for air can be left open no matter how rough the sea may be.

This ensures a constant supply of fresh air entering for the whole length of the saloon. The outlet is provided for by oval ventilating shafts through the saloon roof, thence by passages and shafts to shade the deck, where also the ventilators may be left open under all conditions.

For lighting as well as ventilating the saloon, there is a central well which is about 24 feet long by about 16 feet broad and is carried right up and through the upper and promenade decks, the covering just above the line of the shaded deck being a curved dome of stained glass with an outer casing of thick glass in teak framing, hinged to open for purposes of ventilation.

The extreme height from the dining room floor is about 33 feet. The outer side of the well that forms part of the drawing-room walls is of cedar stiles in the lower part, with a dado molding. In contrast, the upper part is paneled, with heavy clear beveled glass mounted in sashes, each swinging on a center pivot. All made to lock in position, a commendable departure from the hitherto essentially adopted practice of leaving the upper part - that above a balustrade—open.

The woodwork of this well is decorated ivory, white relieved, with gold lines in the moldings. The pilasters above the line of the promenade deck are richly carved and surmounted with a frieze all around.

This will be a relief to the passengers who are indisposed to enjoy the luxuries of the table. This condition, unfortunately, does present itself to many who "go down to the sea in ships" when they prefer the solace of the cheery fireside of the drawing-room.

Thanks to the precaution taken, there cannot come to them unpleasant reminders of the penalty of their weakness in the fragrant odors which float up the well from the dining saloon below.

THE DRAWING ROOM.

The fireside is one of the most charming features of the beautiful drawing-room, which is a vast apartment, 60 feet long by 30 feet broad, and is well lighted, not only from the large square windows looking onto the promenade on either side of the ship, but from the well which pierces the promenade deck in the center of the saloon, and from two domes, one in the center of that part of the saloon forward of the well, and the other in the part aft.

The First Class Drawing Room on the RMS Campania.

The First Class Drawing Room, Fore End, on the RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd6e25808

The two views of this saloon give an excellent idea of the admirable taste with which its decorations have been carried out. The general effect, too, is greatly enhanced by the roof, which has a rise in the center. The " ingle-neuk" is quite an unusual feature of the drawing-room or perhaps a return to the homely conditions formerly obtained, without any of those discomforts that Dickens has narrated in his inimitable style.

It is at the forward end. The mantle and overmantle are both in satinwood, richly carved, with three arched mirrors, all in keeping with the general scheme of decoration of the room, which is in the renaissance style; the grate is of brass, and the hearth is laid with Persian tiles. A feeling of coziness is contributed by two lounges fitted on either side of the fireplace, with an ottoman in front, while the subdued light through the stained glass dome completes the charming effect.

Comfort is suggested by the arrangement as well as by the whole apartment. The walls are lined with satinwood relieved with cedar moldings, the frieze panels being of a plane tree. The ceiling is pine, decorated in light tones, old ivory prevailing, with a bit of gilding. As is usual, the electric lamps are arranged in alternate panels forming the center of a pattern and not on the beams.

Drawing Room - Side View.

Drawing Room - Side View on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd8c00fea

The steel stanchions supporting the roof are encased with richly molded and carved satinwood pillars. Two porches connect with a passage on either side to staterooms forward on the promenade deck. These porches are also satinwood, with stained glass panels and rich brocade portiere curtains hung across the entrances.

After the end of this saloon is a grand piano, and into a recess has been fitted an American organ, the casing being of satinwood, with cedarwood panels. These were supplied by Messrs. Paterson, Sons & Co., of Glasgow. Like the other furnishings, it is made of satinwood. The polished top and panels show the beautifully rich clouded figure of the wood in pleasing contrast to the duller surface of the cedar. Both instruments are specially protected from damp and moths, the stools in each case being made receptacles for music.

The settees, ottomans, &c., with the chairs for the card tables, are upholstered in rich velvets and brocades of various coloring, which together with the rich Persian wove carpet which covers the floor, and the delightful variety and irregularity of the furniture, give the room a very attractive appearance. Two arched vestibules lead from this charming room into the landing of the grand staircase already described.

THE SMOKING ROOM.

This apartment is about 40 feet long by 32 feet wide and situated on the promenade deck aft, with a bar at one end. The smoking room has powerful counter attractions--material and otherwise. There is the same feeling of homeliness here in the fire burning brightly in the bronze dog grate, the flames dancing in the dark blue tiles of the hearth and cheeks.

The First Class Smoking Room on the RMS Campania.

The First Class Smoking Room on the RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd754799c

The beautifully carved fireplace and overmantel are in excellent keeping. The woodwork is constructed entirely of fumed oak, while the upholstering is in pigskin of the natural color, which is sure to improve with wear. The style is of the Jacobean period, with the tables and chairs to suit. The whole tone is subdued and suggestive of elegant ease and comfort.

All around the smoking room are arranged small alcoves or recesses, each with little tables and chairs around the sides. Passengers may form small parties to enjoy the comforts of the soothing pipe or an enjoyable cigar. They might even partake in a friendly card game (not entirely unknown on the Atlantic) except "poker."

There are four entrances or exits, two from the fore-end leading to the ship where the staterooms are arranged, and one on either side leads onto the promenade deck, while a stairway leads to the deck below. In both drawing and smoking rooms, one may note that blowers are fitted, and these can be drawn to cover the entire fireplace in each case.

THE LIBRARY.

The library is on the promenade deck, convenient to the grand staircase. It is 29 feet long by 24 feet broad, and the general effect suggests the French Renaissance. In the bookcase, volumes suited to all classes of readers are arranged. The lower part of the case is enclosed with hinged doors having carved Amboyna panels, as are the plasters.

A View of The Library on the Campania.

A View of The Library on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd76deb69

The upper part has glass doors and mahogany astragals. A carved covet surmounts the whole, and it is worked into the ceiling. Comfort is suggested by the two large ottomans in the center of the room. Writing tables and iv chairs are arranged close to the walls.

The room is finished in richly - carved mahogany with Amboyna panels. The highly ornate roof is painted in two shades of ivory, the electric lamps, which take the form of rosettes in beaten copper, being the center of the pattern in each alternate panel. The floor is laid with oak parquetry, with a sizeable richly-colored Turkey carpet in the center. The seats are upholstered in Mecca and blue velvet; the curtains are of rich brocade, in harmony.

Another View of the Library on the Campania.

Another View of the Library on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd7ad7df5

The tout ensemble of the library is exquisite and comfortable. It reflects, along with the other public rooms, great credit to the artists who carried them out—the Fairfield Company, the dining saloon, staircase, and well. At the same time, Messrs. Wylie and Lochhead of Glasgow decorated and furnished the drawing-room, smoking room, and library, besides the upholstery throughout the ship.

Cabin Class Staterooms

The distinctive feature of the great majority of the staterooms is their great height, which approximates 10 feet. This, in itself, ensures satisfactory ventilation. At the same time, jalousies are adopted wherever practicable, and, in addition, Utley's system of ventilation is adopted, as we shall describe later on, so that even in the case of those rooms which are not close to the shell of the ship, the air will be changed frequently.

The beds throughout the ship are made entirely of iron. The old type of wooden berth, which was more in keeping with the vessels of 20 or 30 years ago, has been wholly superseded, not only for passengers but for officers, crew, and firemen. The beds in the staterooms are of Hoskin's " cryptic" type, which combines lightness with strength. With all its bedding, the upper bed folds up against the bulkhead so that in the event of a smaller number of passengers being on board than is contemplated, there will always be much more room for those in the ordinary course of events traveling.

Parlor and Bedroom.

Parlor and Bedroom. GGA Image ID # 1bda0fd875

While framed in iron, the leeboard has carved mahogany panels, and a new feature has been adopted in this respect, which will add significantly to the comfort of the passengers. In the old type of wooden berth, the lee hoard extended the whole length of the berth and formed the front of a sort of box, in the act of getting into and out of which—primarily if one occupied the upper berth—the passenger had to perform something approaching an acrobatic feat. The result was not always comfortable, nor the spectacle elegant.

In the modern arrangements, the leeboard extends only one half the length of the bed, and it can be easily fixed at either end or in the center so that while the ship is in the sea, the passenger has all the advantages of the arrangement, and has freedom of movement either out of or into the berth. Experience has shown that this length of leeboard is sufficient for protection.

The profusion of small shelves, trinket drawers, book racks, &c., in the staterooms suggest that the designer had an intimate knowledge of the essential requirements of passengers, especially of ladies, whose love of cupboards, etc. is almost proverbial. The general rooms are fitted in mahogany and upholstered with plush or velvet, while the fittings are electro-plated. There is a large wardrobe in each room and the usual washstand, life-belt, racks, hooks, etc. Electric light and electric call bells add to the complete sum of comfortable surroundings.

There are rooms to suit all tastes on the ship. As we have said, many single berth cabins are provided, and many double cabins, together with several three or four-berth rooms. In contrast, family apartments are furnished in addition to magnificently appointed suites on the upper deck. Several ensuite rooms are fitted in the most beautiful satinwood and mahogany. They are arranged as parlor and bedroom, the parlor being equipped with a table, couch, and chair, on the model of a lady's boudoir, with suitable decorations.

In the bedroom is a handsome brass-furnished bedstead with over-hangings. There are toilet arrangements in the most excellent style, with all the etceteras desirable. While these suites of rooms will form the highest attraction, there are, on the same deck, many superior rooms, although not associated with the same luxuries. They are fitted on the lines of the better class of staterooms but paneled in hardwood instead of being painted and supplied with patent collapsible bedsteads. The bedstead is capable of being extended to form a double bed, and when a single bed, the front rail may be collapsed to form a couch or settee.

SECOND CLASS PASSENGER ACCOMMODATIONS

Second Class Ladies Saloon on the RMS Campania.

Second Class Ladies Saloon on the RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd6565933

The public rooms for the second-class passengers are all placed abaft the machinery on the upper arid promenade decks.

The dining saloon is on the upper deck and is furnished in a style equal to that of the first-class saloons in ordinary ships, in solid oak, and fitted with tables, revolving chairs, sideboard, etc. This, together with a separate room for children and servants of the second class, will enable the second class passengers to dine in two groups.

The drawing room is on the promenade deck at the head of the stairway leading to the dining room and staterooms.

In the fitting of this room, as in the case of the apart for the first-class quarters, a want of uniformity has been aimed at, the result being a few lovely apartments, which has the addition of a beautifully - toned cottage piano, furnished in satinwood, to suit the general decoration of the room; supplied by Messrs. Paterson, Sons & Co., of Glasgow. This saloon, therefore, although short of the luxuries of the first-class saloon, will be a most comfortable and pleasant resort for the ladies.

Second Class Dining Saloon on the RMS Campania.

Second Class Dining Saloon on the RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd679782a

The smoking room is on the poop, with a stair leading from the cabins below. It is finished in American walnut and has an ever-popular bar.

Almost the only difference between the fittings of the first and second-class cabins and staterooms is the use of brass mountings instead of electro-plate, and possibly there is a more significant number of four-berth rooms. In all respects, the accommodation and convenience are practically the same.

Steerage Passengers

Third Class/Steerage 2-Berth and 4-Berth Rooms on the RMS Campania.

Third Class/Steerage 2-Berth and 4-Berth Rooms on the RMS Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd65c695c

The Steerage passengers, from 600 to 1,000 may be carried, are accommodated on the lower deck. Iron portable berths are provided. These passengers will be allowed to promenade on the upper deck, the circuit of which five times makes a one-mile walk, so that, in this respect, they are very favorably situated. Each compartment of the steerage has a pantry for the particular use of the passengers located therein.

HEATING.

The Dispensary.

The Dispensary. GGA Image ID # 1bda05dd28

The whole of the passenger accommodation in the ship, including the public rooms, is heated by a complete system of steam heating, all so arranged that the whole or any part might be heated when required. Then the officer's and crew's quarters of the ship only may be heated when the vessel is in port and there are no passengers on board. The steam pipes are all covered with ornamental polished brass casings.

The dispensary and doctor's room are situated on the main deck, near the entrance to the Grand staircase. They are fitted up with all appliances and requisites necessary by Messrs. Frazer and Green, Chemists, Glasgow.

LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES.

We have already stated that the " Campania" is so extensively divided into compartments by watertight bulkheads as to ensure her floating with any two of them flooded, and in some cases with even three spaces filled with water, particularly forward, where the chances of a smash consequent to a collision are greater than amidships or aft.

Again, the double bottom, the one 4 feet 6 inches inside the other, will minimize the consequences of a rupture in the outer bottom, owing to grounding or running onto a hidden rock, for the inner bottom is as strong and as watertight, as the outer skin, The intermediate space will be utilized for water ballast, for trimming purposes, and here it may be mentioned that the capacity for water ballast is about 2000 tons.

There is little chance of the ship foundering or sinking by collision, but withal provision has been made for such a contingency. Twenty lifeboats on either side occupy the shaded deck.

Sixteen of these lifeboats are 30 feet in length by feet beam and 4 feet deep, and the others are of slightly smaller size, a number over the Board of Trade requirements. They can all be simultaneously launched if required and have patent apparatus for launching to prevent swamping. In addition, there are life-belts in every cabin and stateroom, more than sufficient for every passenger. Every passenger's water and airtight pillow is also meant as a life-saving apparatus and will keep the possessor afloat until a refuge is found.

VENTILATORS AND LIFE-BOATS.

Ventilators and Life Boats on the Campania.

Ventilators and Life Boats on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd9e5cb23

The passenger rooms, and indeed the whole ship, are ventilated on Utley's system, the distinctive feature of which is the use of a valve at the inlet so that when the opening becomes submerged, the valves close, forming a water-tight job. When the water recedes, the valve drops down again, leaving a free passage for the air to pass through.

There is a free passage for the air to enter, so long as the opening into the ventilator is not submerged. The forecastle heads are supplied with a cowl and deck combination ventilator, leading into the firemen's and seamen's quarters, exhausting the air which initially enters through the porthole.

KITCHEN ARRANGEMENTS.

The immensity which characterizes the whole of the new ship is significantly extended adequately to this department, for prompt service, essential to a well-ordered establishment, is impossible without ample accommodation. Therefore, large pantries have been provided, an apartment being fitted up on either side of the steamer, on the main deck, immediately aft of the dining saloon.

Pantry on the Cunard Campania.

Pantry on the Cunard Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd8e6ca45

These pantries are fitted up comprehensively with all the details that the long experience of the Cunard Company's stewards suggested.

The fittings are more or less standard patterns for this class of ships. Still, the magnitude of the equipment at once impresses the visitor, notably the number of special fittings, such as hotplates, steam tables, tea, coffee machinery, etc.

The galleys or kitchens have been arranged on the ship's port side, and adjoining them are the bakeries and sculleries. Two lifts are provided in the galley for the rapid handling of the food supplies, one for taking to the scullery plates to be washed, while the other is used solely for service from the kitchen.

A View of a Saloon Cooking Galley on the Campania.

A View of a Saloon Cooking Galley on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd91f85db

The galley is a large, well-lit, carefully ventilated apartment, from 25 feet to 3o feet square. One side is entirely taken up with the range, 25 feet long by 4 feet wide, supplied by Messrs. John Phillips & Co, of Glasgow.

The great size of this range will more readily appeal to the housewife's mind when we state that nearly 170 dinner plates, or ordinary stew pots or pans, might be set on its surface.

While there are many large ovens, special boilers, which resemble enormous eggshells, are utilized for various purposes; vegetable cookers, etc. The cooking is done by steam, which circulates around the outer casing of the boiler.

There is also a big grill, and here, as in the case of the range, the waste heat is utilized for heating plates, etc., in small ovens in the up-take. The floor is laid with tiles, and throughout, there is a feeling of cleanliness and roominess.

Bake House on the Campania.

Bake House on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd926d97e

The butcher's shop adjoins, and next to it is the bakery, fitted with a large oven. The bakers turn out at 4 a.m., or there would be no hot rolls or cakes for breakfast.

The cooks begin operations at 5-30 a.m., and at 6 a.m., coffee is served in the staterooms to any passenger requiring it, or on deck, should any passenger have so far forgotten himself as to get out of bed at that hour.

Breakfast is served from 8 to 10 a.m., lunch from 1 to 2 p.m., dinner from 5 to 7 p.m, and supper from 9 to 10 p.m. so that the cooks are employed till 10 p.m., while the bakers finish their day's work at 7 p.m. The stewards turn out at 6 a.m. and do not finish work until 1 p.m.

Provision Stores on the Campania.

Provision Stores on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd92e48d3

Extensive cold-air provision stores have been provided below the kitchens, etc.

The necessity for large storage capacity will be readily appreciated when we state that the Campania when carrying her complete number of passengers, will start on her voyage with something like ...

  • 20,000 lbs, fresh beef,
  • 1000 lbs, corned beef,
  • 10,000 lbs. mutton,
  • 1400 lbs. lamb,
  • 500 lbs, veal,
  • 500 lbs. pork,
  • 3,500 lbs. fresh fish,
  • 10,000 fowls,
  • 400 chickens,
  • 150 ducks,
  • 80 geese,
  • 100 turkeys,
  • 30 tons potatoes,
  • 30 hampers vegetables,
  • 300 quarts ice-cream,
  • 1600 quarts milk,
  • 18,000 eggs, etc,, etc,

Again, in groceries something like 200 different articles will be carried, including

  • 1000 lbs. tea,
  • 1500 lbs. coffee,
  • 2800 lbs, white sugar,
  • 4500 lbs. moist sugar,
  • 1000 lbs. pulverized sugar,
  • 2400 lbs, cheese,
  • 3000 lbs, butter,
  • 6000 lbs, ham, and
  • 1800 lbs, bacon,

The quantities seem significant, but it would be easy, if considered desirable, to account for the consumption.

Each crew member is allowed 2 lbs. of beef per day. Therefore about B00 lbs a day will be thus disposed of, while 400 lbs will be used each day for beef tea, 18,000 eggs look a large order, being about 2 per minute of the duration of the voyage, but they disappear in many forms. One authority says, "it is not unusual to see a lady or gentleman finish off a supper of grilled chicken and devilled sardines, with four poached eggs on toast."

Lemons are used at the rate of per head per day, oranges 3 per head per day, and apples, when in season, at the rate of 2 3/4 per head, per day; and the wines, spirits, and beer consumed -- that is purely a case of local option -- and our purpose is to note the necessity for storage capacity, not to deal altogether with consumption; and therefore, it may be sufficient to state that three condensers provide an abundant supply of pure water on the Normandy principle,

REFRIGERATORS.

The cold air chambers are worked on the D. la Vergne principle. The method adopted for cooling by the circulation of cold brine through coils of pipes, which goes on continually. These brine circulating pipes are divided into two sets so that any leakage or repair can be attended to on one section without interfering with the circulation through the other. Each section is sufficient to maintain the low temperature in the room.

Special means are also provided for withdrawing the brine from either section without interfering with the working of the other. The refrigerators and all cold parts of the machine are enclosed in a carefully insulated chamber to minimize the losses as far as possible.

The cold chambers are carefully insulated with double thicknesses of tongued and grooved boards with waterproof paper between them, 2 inches of best hair felt, one inch of air space, and again a double thickness of boards and waterproof paper, the whole being furnished with two coats of varnish.

Each chamber is fitted with thermometer tubes from the upper deck to ascertain the temperature in any part at intervals. The brine pipes are 2-inch galvanized tubes. The meat hook rails are of 1-inch galvanized round iron, on which are placed galvanized steel hooks for carrying the quarters of beef.

CARGO.

Notwithstanding the " Campania's" great size she will not carry a large amount of cargo, about 1620 tons being only accommodated. On the orlop deck there are extensive holds fore and aft, but when it is noted that the machinery takes up nearly three-fourths the length of the ship on this deck, the small proportion of carrying capacity to the total area in the ship will be accounted for, Besides, a very large part of this area has to be reserved for the MAILS for very few, if indeed any, Cunard steamers have left Britain on an Atlantic voyage without mails since the Government first determined to send them by steamers on the maiden trip of the pioneer Cunard liner " Britannia," in 1840.

The extent of room required for the mails may be judged by the fact that occasionally the bags exceed 2000 in number, and sometimes requires two trains between London and Holyhead to convey them. There are five holds, and such as are not required for the mails and passenger's baggage are given over for cargo of the first class.

One class of cargo specially suited to these large first-class steamers is preserved meat, and the " Campania" has very large holds fitted with refrigerating machinery for this special trade. The development of this traffic during the past few years justifies this position, In 1876 the amount of fresh meat conveyed to this country from the States was only 90,790 quarters, valued at £223,698.

In four years the amount increased fivefold, Since then the importation of live cattle has been against the dead-meat trade; still, over 500,000 cwts. of fresh meat are imported from the States every year at a value of £. 1,138,000, The refrigerating machinery for the meat-carrying chamber is equal to produce twelve tons of ice per day. There are three chambers having a total capacity of 20,000 cubic feet, and capable of carrying 2700 quarters of beef.

Barber Shop

Barber's Shop on the Campania.

Barber's Shop on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd9568a00

As the advertisement would have it, a barber's shop is fitted with all the appliances for the proper treatment of hirsute appendages and an electric motor for driving the brushes.

LAVATORY ACCOMMODATION.

This has had special attention. The principal accommodation for gentlemen is on the upper deck aft, convenient to most parts of the ship and particularly to the smoking-room, from which there is a special stair.

The public lavatory has many washstands with an unlimited supply of water and tip-up basins, mirrors, and everything complete. Near this again are the urinals. The bathroom and w.c.'s [water closets] each extend across the entire width of the ship, and the flushing arrangements are such that there is a constant supply of water always passing through the pipe.

Ladies' Bathroom on the Campania.

Ladies' Bathroom on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd9580823

The Baths throughout the ship are made of marble hewn out of the solid block, and there is an unlimited supply of cold and hot water. The Fairfield Company recognized objectionable features in the method adopted in many ships of heating the cold water in the bath through a steam jet, turned on at the passenger's will after the cold water is in the bath. Therefore, hot water is supplied so that there cannot be any accidents or annoyance. Shower, douche, plunge, and spray baths can be procured.

By utilizing a four-way cock in each case for hot and cold water, the passenger is saved from the trouble of a confusing assortment of handles. There is but one handle to turn to a given point, and the position of the handle is convenient. The accommodation for ladies is on the upper deck forward, while on the promenade deck, convenient to the suite of rooms, as in other parts of the ship, there are special lavatories, etc.

Navigating Officers Quarters

Officers' Mess Room on the Campania.

Officers' Mess Room on the Campania. GGA Image ID # 1bd9aed740

The navigating officers' quarters are on the shaded deck, close to the bridge, while the engineer officers are on the main deck, close to the engines. The members of the crew have their berths in the forecastle.

Crew Count (Manpower) on a Steamship

This is the number of crew members required to operate and maintain the Cuunard steamships Campania and Lucania in 1893.

MANNING.

The crew, all told, number 424 men. It is divided into three groups or departments

  1. sailing
  2. engineers
  3. stewards

The details of the departments are as follows:

Sailing Department

  • Commander
  • Officers
  • Purser
  • Surgeon
  • Carpenter and 1 Joiner
  • Boatswain and 2 Mates
  • Quartermasters.
  • 38 A,B,'s (Seamen)

Engineers' Department

  • Chief Engineer
  • 21 Engineers
  • Refrigerating Engineers
  • Boilermaker
  • Electricians
  • Storekeepers
  • " Donkey " Men - The Donkey Men are foremen in charge of the boilers.
  • 20 Greasers - kept the machinery parts well oiled.
  • 79 Firemen - sometimes called stockers) worked in the boiler rooms, feeding the furnaces with endless shovels of coal in sweltering heat. They also cleaned the boilers when necessary.
  • 6o Trimmers - were employed to keep the coal in the bunkers evenly trimmed and accessible for the firemen.

Stewards' Department

  • Chief Steward
  • 129 Stewards
  • Stewardesses
  • 41 Cooks, Bakers, etc.

Total Manpower requirements for the Cunard Campania and Lucania

  • 54 In Sailing Department
  • 190 In Engineers' Department
  • 180 In Stewards' Department
  • 424 Total Crew

It is scarcely necessary to add that the commander and chief engineer, and the leading men of the staff, are all men of great experience.

We have to thank the editors of Engineering and The Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine for using their descriptions of the building of the "Campania" and the History of the Cunard Company.

List of Photographs and Illustrations

  1. RMS "Campania,"
  2. Ribs And Bow Framing
  3. Bow View Before Launch
  4. Stern View Before Launch Showing Propellers
  5. Launch
  6. Boilers
  7. Triple Expansion Engines
  8. Starting Gear Of Engines
  9. Electric Light Dynamo And Engine
  10. Deck View, With Navigating Appliances
  11. Captain's Bridge, Wheelhouse, Telegraphs, Etc.
  12. Windlass, Capstan, Etc.
  13. Interior Of Light Tower
  14. Crow's Nest
  15. Steam Pipe And Whistle
  16. Ventilators & Lifeboats
  17. Electric Light On Promenade. Deck
  18. Grand Stairway
  19. Promenade Deck Right Side
  20. Promenade Deck Left Side
  21. Dining Room
  22. General View
  23. Corner In Dining Room
  24. Drawing Room
  25. Forward End
  26. Side View
  27. Smoking Room
  28. Library
  29. Pantry
  30. Ladies' Bath Room
  31. Bake House, Saloon Cooking Galley
  32. Children's Dining Saloon, Second Class
  33. Barber's Shop
  34. Dispensary
  35. Writing Table In Library
  36. Parlour And Bed Room
  37. Officers' Mess Room
  38. Ladies' Saloon, 2nd Class
  39. Chart Of Course

These illustrations are mostly reproduced from photographs taken by Messrs. T. tit R. Annan & Sons, Glasgow. Those of the Lifeboats and Vista on Promenade Deck, by permission of the Photographers, Messrs. Maclure, Macdonald & Co., Glasgow.

The RMS Campania at Sea.

The RMS Campania at Sea. GGA Image ID # 1bd616d1c1

 

Information on Brochure

  • Title: The Cunard Passenger Log Book: A Short History of the Cunard Steamship Company and A Description of the Royal Mail Steamers Campania and Lucania with Numerous Illustrations and Chart for Recording Dialy Runs.
  • Published: David Bryce and Son, Glasgow 1893
  • Dimensions: 9.5 x 17.2 cm
  • Number of Pages: 96

Cunard Passenger's Log Book, A SHORT HISTORY OF THE CUNARD STEAMSHIP COMPANY AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE ROYAL MAIL STEAMERS CAMPANIA AND LUCANIA, With Numerous Illustrations, AND CHART FOR RECORDING DAILY RUNS, -GLASGOW: DAVID BRYCE AND SON, 1893

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