World War I Army / Navy Recruitment Brochure
WWI Army / Navy Recruitment Brochure. Circa 1917, Published by the Prudential Insurance Agency. 32 Pages.
- Forward-Purpose of Brochure
- Signal Corps
- Marine and Sailor
- Torpedo Boat Destroyers
- Scout Cruisers
- Medical Department
- What Every Soldier Ought To Know
THE ARMY THE NAVY Of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The PRUDENTIAL INSURANCE COMPANY of AMERICA
NEWARK, NEW JERSEY
"—We shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts—for democ- racy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free people as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free."
WITH millions of young men registered in the United States for national service, it
is proper, perhaps, that a little booklet such as this may be put forth illustrative of the various branches of Military and Naval life to which these youth of the land are assigned to duty. It has been prepared with much care and a rigid respect for accuracy in detail and in statement and has been passed upon by both the War and Navy Departments of our government.
It is hoped that these accuracies and these facts may prove of interest, and make us look with more pride upon a flag whose honor has been untainted since it first fluttered to the dawn, and the splendor of whose hues has every- where been accepted as a covenant representing neither aggression nor conquest nor dominion.
THE infantry is, in a sense, the army. Other arms of the service—the cavalry, artillery, etc. -- are auxiliary. They are for the purpose of enabling the infantry to win battles. There are about 26,000 men in an of army division. this total the infantry numbers about 19,000, the cavalry, artillery, engineers, sanitary train, signal corps, being about 7,000.
On the march the division extends along fifteen miles of road, and moves at the rate of two to two and one-half miles an hour. At the end of every fifty minutes the division halts and the men are allowed ten min- utes rest, with an hour for lunch.
A division is the smallest tactical unit. In the words of General Wood, it is the smallest unit that can be called an army. Our army is not organized into tactical however, having been distributed widely among our forty-nine mobile army posts.
THE cavalryman, or "trooper," because of the open formation of most cavalry movements must have plenty of dash and individual resourcefulness. He must, of course, be a horseman of more than ordinary skill. He must be able to vault into the saddle from the ground, and must know how to care for his horse as well.
The arms of the cavalryman are the saber, rifle, and automatic pistol. He is required at times to dismount and fight on foot, a phase of service in which the cavalry of this country excels.
The division on the march is preceded by a regiment of cavalry, which reconnoitres, and screens the movements of the division by preventing the enemy from reconnoitring.
Showing complete Field Equipment of Soldier and Horse Yellow Hat Cord
THE engineer often receives a part of his training in civil life. He must, however, also have specialized knowledge for army service.
He solves problems of camp location and drainage; constructs cover for the men in the trenches; erects field fortifications; creates obstructions for the enemy and clears them away for his own division; builds railroads, bridges and repairs roads, does all pioneering work, and, in short, actually performs and superintends all construction plans of All the army.
Army engineers built the Panama Canal.
FIELD WIRELESS OUTFIT
Insert—Signaling with Semaphore Flags
Orange and White Bat Cord
THE signal troops are the nerves of the division. The commander of the division can communicate with any part of it by telephone on the march.
A signal battalion furnishes communication by flag signals, heliograph, acetylene lamps, semaphore, field telephone, field telegraph, and wireless.
It is composed of 173 men, with 180 animals. It carries a shop wagon, two instrument wagons, six wire carts, twenty miles of wire, and four radio sections.
The Signal Corps has complete charge of the aviation, telegraph, wireless telegraph, telephones, photography and ordinary signalling methods. In this branch are thousands of men drawn from the electrical field.
THE Aviation Corps, listed as aeroplane service, has supplanted the cavalry of the old days, as the eyes and ears of the army.
Its importance in this service has been but recently demonstrated, and so greatly has this importance been valued that all nations have contracted for thousands upon thousands of these birds of the air.
Signalling, of course, is done from aeroplanes, but greater duties of the aero squadron are scouting and directing artillery fire.
The Aviation Corps is part of the regular Army Signal Corps.
AVIATOR IN FLYING COSTUME
Distinguishing color same as Signal Corps
Weapons of War (Left to Right, Top to Bottom) :
- WHITEHEAD TORPEDO
- SEARCHLIGHT FOR AIRCRAFT AND FIELD SERVICE
- ANTI-AIR CRAFT GUN
- ARMORED TRACTOR—TANK
- SPRINGFIELD RIFLE AND BAYONET
- LEWIS MACHINE GUN
- ARMORED MOTOR CYCLE
- COLT AUTOMATIC PISTOL
- ARMORED MOTOR CAR
AT the present time we hear much about the coast artillery, which is made up of fixed or stationary cannon, set in batteries made up of two or more guns within proper fortifications on various strategic points where they may effectively oppose naval attacks.
Artillery for fortifications is of a character similar to coast artillery. Siege guns are of as heavy a calibre or power as the guns used in fortifications but are mounted so that they may be moved by motor power or train from one point to another.
Field, horse and mountain artillery are exactly what their names imply— the mobile adaptable guns of an army.
Machine guns do not form part of the artillery. Picked men are de tailed from each regiment of infantry to operate the machine guns.
FIELD & COAST ARTILLERY IN ACTION
MARINE AND SAILOR
IN a 27,000-ton battleship is a crew of some 1,100 men. In battle, some 400 or more men are engaged in serving the main battery guns; possibly twenty actually see the result of the fire. In the engine rooms are nearly 300 more men upon whose efficiency depends in no less degree the success of the battle.
The Marines are in effect sea-going infantry. They are called into action when a seaport must be quickly seized, or a legation in a foreign country protected. A battleship carries two officers and about seventy men of the Marine Corps.
There are in the Navy, in peacetimes, Sailors, Marines, and Officers.
In our Naval Militia are enlisted men and officers.
MARINE—Full Dress Uniform
Marine Corps Device | Navy Device
NAVAL strength is purely comparative.
At the outbreak of the Spanish War we had but five battleships, two armored cruisers, and twenty-nine smaller cruisers. In our program it is now contemplated that by 1921 we shall have fifty-two battleships, six battle cruisers, and forty-one cruisers.
The term "superdreadnaught" has been coined for battleships of 25,000 tons and
speed of from twenty-one to twenty-five knots. Similarly the term "predreadnaught" designates the other battleships, of not over 16,000 tons.
Our Nevada and Oklahoma are 27,500 ton ships, as are England's Queen Elizabeth and Warspite. Our Arizona and Pennsylvania, just completed, are of 35,400 tons. Our Idaho, Mississippi, and New Mexico, under construction, are of 32,000 tons.
TORPEDO BOAT DESTROYERS
THE torpedo boat, a small craft of from fifty to about 3oo tons displacement, is being largely displaced by the destroyer, a similar vessel of 350 to 1,100 tons. Both types are armed with small guns as well as torpedo equipment, and their speed varies from nineteen to thirty-three knots. They are important as raiders, and for screening naval operations by trailing thick clouds of smoke.
The torpedo is the most deadly missile in naval warfare. A hollow steel projectile of the size of a small pleasure boat, it contains most intricate and delicately adjusted mechanisms, for propelling it, for steering it, and for timing the explosion. By means of the gyroscope the torpedo may be made to describe a winding path before striking its target. By means of wireless methods, the torpedo has been made even more destructive.
TORPEDO VESSEL ("DESTROYER")
At Full Speed in the Open Sea
LIKE the aeroplane, the submarine is undergoing changes so rapidly, and usually so secretly that it is difficult to make statements of fact about it.
It has been claimed that a crew of eighteen to twenty-four can live for three or four weeks on the supply of air in its containers, without coming to the surface. The submarine is sub- merged partly by the flooding of its ballast tanks with sea water, and partly by the action of its horizontal rudders when in motion. Its lowest safety depth is 200 feet; below that it will collapse from the pressure of the water above it.
It is said that a submarine can aim (through its periscope), discharge a torpedo, and dive, in five seconds. The submarine is a raider rather than a tactical implement.
SUBMARINE RUNNING ON SURFACE
Coming into Harbor
THE old type of armored cruiser, a vessel of 9,000 to 16,000 tons, has way
given on the one hand to the "battle cruiser," a vessel of 57,000 tons and over, and on the other hand to the "scout cruiser," of 5,000 tons or less, and built for great speed.
At the outset of the great war in 1914 Germany had building four new battle cruisers of 28,000 tons each, and Japan four of 27,500 tons each. England has ten. The United States at that time had none, but four were started in 1916.
The battle in which the Bluecher was sunk was fought on both sides by battle cruisers. The value of speed in battle cruisers (twenty-five to thirty knots) was well demonstrated by England's victory in that battle.
The latest Navy bill provides for ten "scout cruisers" for the United States.
THE duties of the Medical Corps are of great importance, and looking after the wounded with the aid of the Red Cross, is but a part of them.
The health of the Army and the prevention of disease, inspection of food and water supply, and other camp sanitations, are in its jurisdiction.
The Medical Department is supplemented by the Hospital Corps, the Nurse Corps, the
Dental Corps and the Veterinary Corps.
The Red Cross is an international badge respected by all forces.
MOTOR AMBULANCE AND FIELD HOSPITAL
Maroon Hat Cord
WHAT EVERY SOLDIER OUGHT TO KNOW
THE object to be aimed at in the training of a soldier is to make him, in mind and body, a better man than his adversary on the field of battle. Fitness for war is the only thing that counts, and every soldier should school himself to keep this constantly in mind.
His first duty is to acquire a soldierly spirit. This will help him to bear fatigue, privation, and danger cheerfully, will give him confidence in himslf, his officers, and his comrades, and will produce such a high degree of courage and disregard of self that, in the day of battle, he will use his brains and his weapons coolly and to his best advantage. A soldier must learn to be proud of his profession and particularly so of his own regiment or corps.