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USS Indiana, USS Iowa, USS Massachusetts, USS Oregon 1898

USS INDIANA

USS INDIANA—Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class

Photograph: USS Indiana : Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class.

Length 348 feet. Breadth 6914 feet. Mean draft 24 feet. Displacement 10,288 tons. Speed 15.547 knots per hour. Personnel 82 officers. 441 men. Cost $3,020.000.

The indications are that the battleship Indiana will procure a premium for her builders, the Wm. Cramp & Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, of $100,000, will mean that she will make an average run of sixteen knots an hour, which will be one knot above her guaranteed speed.

The daily press thus describes her contractors' speed trial:

After passing outside the Capes, her course was changed, and she ran northward. The day was a perfect one for a sea trial. The route over which her trial runs were made was off Cape May and was between the Southwest Lightship, at the Five-Fathom Bank, to the Northeast Lightship, 9.65 nautical miles up the coast.

The ship was put over this course six times-three times in each direction. The turns were made at full speed, and the ship was practically under five hours' continuous steaming at high speed. There was no accident of any kind to the machinery or the ship; not a bearing became unduly heated, and everything worked so smoothly that even her builders were surprised.

The first runs were made with a natural draft. The averages were 14.02 and 14.12 knots, respectively. The engines averaged 122 revolutions, and as practically the same time was made going, returning the tidal effect was almost eliminated.

A moderate forced draft of half an inch air pressure was used for the subsequent runs, and the USS Indiana maintained an average of fifteen knots over this course. This is the speed called for in the contract with the Government. The last two runs were made under a forced draught of one-inch air pressure. This increased the average revolutions to 125, and a maximum of 128 was reached at one time.

One could feel only a slight vibration from engines or screws. A bow wave was pushed up until it covered the forward torpedo-tube with spray, but instead of diverging at a wide-angle, as was the case when the Columbia or the New York were speeded, it curved inboard and followed the lines of the ship. The ship made 15.6 knots on these last two runs.

The USS Indiana is the first of the three coast-line battleships authorized by the act of Congress, approved June 30, 1890, appropriating for the construction of three battleships at a cost not exceeding $4,000,000 each. Bids were opened October 1, 1890, and on November 19, 1890, contracts were awarded to the William Cramp & Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, of Philadelphia, for two of these vessels at a contract price of $3,020,000 each, to be finished within precisely three years.

The hull will be protected by belts of heavy armor, eighteen inches thick at the maximum and seven and one-half feet wide, three feet above the water. This protection is to run along both sides of the vessel for a distance of 148 feet amidships, at the extremities of which the armor will turn in toward the centerline at an angle of forty-five degrees for the longitudinal length of twenty-four feet, affording total broadside protection of 196 feet, and passing around and supporting the armor for the 13-in. gun turrets.

On top of this side, armor is placed a steel deck, two and three-fourth inches thick, under which are the magazines and machinery. Above this belt of side armor and extending from redoubt to redoubt, armor is five inches thick, with a backing of ten feet of coal.

The vessel is cut up forward beneath the waterline, making a powerful ram bow. The easier lines so obtained diminish the bow wave and also added to the maneuvering qualities.

Between the turrets, for the 13-inch guns, there is a superstructure in which are placed the 6-inch guns, and above, or upon the deck erected thereon, are placed the 8-inch guns.

A battery of 6-pounders is arranged along the top of the hammock berthing and bridge, and 1-pounders are placed two forward and two aft, one on either side, on the berth deck. In the tops of the double topped military mast are four Gatling guns, two in each top.

The main battery will consist of four 13-inch, eight 8-inch, and four 6-inch breech-loading rifles. The secondary battery will contain twenty 6-pounder and four 1-pounder rapid-fire guns and four Gatling guns.

There are six torpedo tubes—one bow, one stern, and four broadside, two on each side, just abaft and forward of the forward and after barbettes, respectively.

The four 13-inch guns are mounted in pairs in two barbette turrets forward and abaft the superstructure on the main deck. The lower part of these turrets, or barbette, has armor seventeen inches thick, while the armor of the turret proper that rises above the barbette is fifteen inches thick.

The 8-inch guns are mounted in pairs in four turrets of similar character, two on either side, on the forward and after extremities of the superstructure deck. The armor of the 8-inch gun turrets is six inches thick.

The four 6-inch guns, two on each side, are placed amidships on the main deck. The guns will have local protection in addition to splinter bulkheads, shields, and automatic shutters.

The 13-inch guns have a compelling arc of fire of 270 degrees. The guns are mounted about seventeen feet above the waterline. The 8-inch guns are about twenty-five feet above the waterline and are high enough to fire over the 13-inch turrets. These guns have an arc of action of 164 degrees.

The engines are of the twin-screw, vertical, triple-expansion, inverted cylinder type, the diameter of the cylinders being as follows: High pressure, 343 inches: intermediate pressure, 48 inches; low pressure, 75 inches, with a common stroke of 42 inches.

There are four double-ended boilers 18 feet long by 15 feet in diameter and two single-ended boilers (donkey) 81 feet long by 10 feet in diameter. Each boiler and engine is in a separate water-tight compartment to localize possible injury.

While the standard coal supply is 400 tons, there is a coal bunker capacity of 1800 tons.

The complement will consist of 460 officers and men.

USS IOWA

USS Iowa - Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class

Photograph: USS Iowa : Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class.

Length 360 feet. Breadth 72 feet. 21 inches. Mean draft 24 feet. Displacement 11,340 tons. Speed 17.087 knots per hour. Personnel 36 officers. 469 men. Cost $3,010,000.

First-class battleship. Twin-screw. Length, 360 feet; breadth, 72 feet, 27 inches; draft, 24 feet displacement, 11,340 tons; speed on official trial. 17.08 knots. Main battery, four 12-inch and eight 8-inch breech-loading rifles, and six 4-inch rapid-fire guns. Secondary battery, twenty 6 pounder, and four 1-pounder rapid-fire guns, and four Gatlings. The thickness of armor, 14 inches. Thirty-six officers: 450 men. Contract price, $3,010,000.

USS MASSACHUSETTS

USS MASSACHUSETTS—Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class

Photograph: USS Massachusetts : Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class.

Length 348 feet. Breadth 69 1/4 feet. Mean draft 24 feet. Displacement 10,288 tons. Speed 16.21 knots per hour. Personnel 32 officers. 441 men. Cost $3,020,000.

USS Massachusetts. First-class battleship. Twin-screw. Length on water-line, 348 feet; breadth, 69 feet, 3 inches; draft, 24 feet; displacement, 10,288 tons; speed, 16.2 knots Main battery, four 13-inch, eight 8-inch four 6-inch guns. Secondary battery, twenty 6-pounder, and four 1-pounder rapid-fire guns, and four Gatlings. Armor, 17, 10, and 8 inches over barbette, 17, 8 1/2 and 6 inches over turret; other armor. 18. 14, and 5 inches near the battery. Thirty-seven officers with a crew of 438. Cost, $3,020,000.

USS OREGON

USS OREGON—Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class

Photograph: USS Oregon : Sea-Going Coast Line Battle Ship of First Class.

Length 348 feet. Breadth 69 1/4 feet. Mean draft 24 feet. Displacement 10,288 tons. Speed 16.79 knots per hour. Personnel 32 officers. 441 men. Cost $3,180,000.

First-class battleship. Twin-screw. Commissioned July 15, 1896. Length. 348 feet; breadth, feet, 3 inches; draft, 24 feet; displacement, 10,288 tons; speed 16.79 knots. Main battery, four 13-inch, eight 8-inch, and four 6-inch breech-loading rifles. Secondary battery, twenty 6-pounder, and six 1-pounder rapid-fire guns, and four Gatlings. Armor on sides, 18 inches thick. Thirty-one officers; 441 men. Cost. $3.180,000; premium earned. $175.000.

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