Immigration War-Time Factors Image Library
Books, brochures, articles, and other ephemera provided photographs and Illustrations of the conditions and experiences of immigrants who chose to enter the United States during World War I. Students and Family Historians are welcome to use these photographs to illustrate your reports and family histories.
Immigrant Family at Ellis Island, March 1917. George Grantham Bain Collection. Library of Congress # 2001704441. GGA Image ID # 1481de353b
Testing Male Immigrants at Ellis Island. Photograph © Underwood and Underwood. In 1914, the last year of heavy immigration, 6,537 aliens were excluded because of physical or mental defect which was thought likely to make them become public charges. Half of these were suffering from some loathsome or contagious disease, while 1,247 were mentally defective. Trachoma, a contagious disease of the eyes, is the commonest cause for exclusion, and four-fifths of these who were excluded for physical defects were suffering from it. Since the outbreak of the war, the number of immigrants arriving has much decreased, and the examiners have therefore had time to inspect them more thoroughly, with the result that a larger percentage than usual of defectives has been detected. The Journal of Heredity, April 1917. GGA Image ID # 14e9f013e7
Inspecting a Group of Female Immigrants. Photograph © Underwood and Underwood. Hitherto the exclusion of undesirable immigrants has teen difficult, because the force of examiners was not large enough to meet the rush of arrivals in the spring, and because the law omitted certain classes who should have been kept out. The new immigration act, passed by Congress in February, increases the inspecting staff and makes important new provisions for excluding those whose presence in the United States would be dysgenic. It also contains provisions which ensure greater consideration and safety for the individual immigrant. The Journal of Heredity, April 1917. GGA Image ID # 14ea2068a6
Commissioner of Immigration Frederick A. Wallis. American Industries, December 1920. GGA Image ID # 14e84304fe
First Gateway to America -- Ellis Island. Underwood & Underwood. American Industries, December 1920. GGA Image ID # 14e85908ea
Types of Child Immigrants Seen at Ellis Island. American Industries, December 1920. GGA Image ID # 14e875a2d1
Three Young Highlander Immigrants at Ellis Island. American Industries, December 1920. GGA Image ID # 14e87771e0
Some of the Russian Refugees at Ellis Island. American Industries, December 1920. GGA Image ID # 14e8e34199
Talented Family Passes the Time at Ellis Island. © Underwood & Underwood. American Industries, December 1920. GGA Image ID # 14e8e4cb0f
Robert De C. Ward, "Immigration After the War," in The Journal of Heredity, (Formerly the American Breeder,' Magazine), Vol. VIII, No. 4 April, 1917, pp. 147-152.
Frederick A. Wallis, "The Menace of the Immigrant Tide," in American Industries Magazine, New York: The National Manufacturers Company, Vol. XXI, No. 5, December 1920, pp. 7-10.