Browse The Gjenvick-Gjønvik Archives Home Page

Steerage (Immigrant Journeys) Image Library

Books, brochures, articles, and other ephemera provided many photographs of the conditions and experiences of immigrants traveling in steerage from the late 1800s through World War I. Students and Family Historians are welcome to use these photographs to illustrate your reports and family histories.

Steerage Passengers on Deck of Ocean Liner - 11 March 1897.

Steerage Passengers on Deck of Ocean Liner - 11 March 1897. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2014684540. GGA Image ID # 145f9f3609

Group of Emigrants (Women and Children) from Eastern Europe on Steerage Deck of the SS Amsterdam - 1899. Library of Congress # 91482252.

Group of Emigrants (Women and Children) from Eastern Europe on Steerage Deck of the SS Amsterdam - 1899. Library of Congress # 91482252. GGA Image ID # 145e384f87

Cleaning Up In the Steerage

Cleaning Up In the Steerage. The World's Work, April 1901. GGA Image ID # 146bcd678a

Steerage Passengers Embarking from Tender.

Steerage Passengers Embarking from Tender. Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen, 1903. GGA Image ID # 14b73b50db

Musicians Among the Passengers in Steerage Brings Music to the Emigrants.

Musicians Among the Passengers in Steerage Brings Music to the Emigrants. Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen, 1903. GGA Image ID # 14b7732401

Embarkation of Steerage Passengers Onto the SS Chemmitz of the North German Lloyd.

Embarkation of Steerage Passengers Onto the SS Chemmitz of the North German Lloyd. Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen, 1903. GGA Image ID # 14b805d677

A Steerage Deck Scene on a Ship of the North German Lloyd.

A Steerage Deck Scene on a Ship of the North German Lloyd. Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen, 1903. GGA Image ID # 14b811030d

Steerage Passengers Enjoying the Fresh Air on the Fore Deck.

Steerage Passengers Enjoying the Fresh Air on the Fore Deck. Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremenm, 1903. GGA Image ID # 14b8229bd2

The Arrival of Steerage Passengers at Bremerhaven, Germany.

The Arrival of Steerage Passengers at Bremerhaven, Germany. Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen, 1903. GGA Image ID # 14b8e1e759

Third Class Ladies Sitting Room on the Carpathia

Third Class Ladies Sitting Room on the Carpathia. The Syren and Shipping (6 May 1903) p. 253-c. GGA Image ID # 106dc60d92

Third Class Smoking Room on the Carpathia

Third Class Smoking Room on the Carpathia. The Syren and Shipping (6 May 1903) p. 253-d. GGA Image ID # 106df73696

Third Class Two-Berth Room on the Carpathia

Third Class Two-Berth Room on the Carpathia. The Syren and Shipping (6 May 1903) p. 254-a. GGA Image ID # 106e01d869

Third Class Four-Berth Room on the Carpathia

Third Class Four-Berth Room on the Carpathia. The Syren and Shipping (6 May 1903) p. 254-b. GGA Image ID # 106e4f1fba

Passengers in Steerage Included Greeks and Syrians, Croatians, Spaniards, Italians and Jews.

Passengers in Steerage Included Greeks and Syrians, Croatians, Spaniards, Italians and Jews. Photo by N. Lazarnick. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 1460f3e598

Five Hundred to Starboard, Five Hundred to Port Make an Ordinary Steerage.

Five Hundred to Starboard, Five Hundred to Port Make an Ordinary Steerage Complement. Photo Courtesy of the International Mercantile Marine. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 14614e17f4

First Cabin Passengers Find Amusement in Watching the Crush of Steerage Passengers below.

First Cabin Passengers Find Amusement in Watching the Crush of Steerage Passengers below. Photo Courtesy of the International Mercantile Marine. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 14618cb9e3

Upper Bunks in the Women's Compartment Showing the Life-Preserver Pillows.

Upper Bunks in the Women's Compartment Showing the Life-Preserver Pillows. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 1461ac12d2

The Men's Sleeping Quarters in Steerage, Showing Arrangement of Bunks and Baggage in Bed with Occupants.

The Men's Sleeping Quarters in Steerage, Showing Arrangement of Bunks and Baggage in Bed with Occupants. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 146270d558

The Big Ship's Purser, Charging Into a Steerage Crowd of Men, Women and Children, Knocking them Right and Left.

The Big Ship's Purser, Charging Into a Steerage Crowd of Men, Women and Children, Knocking them Right and Left. The day was bright, and the shutter set at one-fifteenth of a second, when Mr. Brandenburg took this picture as the ship lay motionless at Gibrattar. The blurred places and the bare outline of the officer's figure shows his speed and force. This photograph was used in evidence before the Presidential Immigrant Inquiry Commission and also before the North German Lloyd management in New York, previous to wholesale reforms made in the handling of third-class/steerage passengers. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 1462d69d4a

Steerage Passengers Eagerly Turned Their Eyes to the Statue of Liberty.

Steerage Passengers Eagerly Turned Their Eyes to the Statue of Liberty. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, May 1904. GGA Image ID # 14631c3ee9

The Immigrant Steerage Passengers Were Huddled Together on the Barge to Ellis Island

The Immigrant Steerage Passengers Were Huddled Together on the Barge to Ellis Island during the Long, Weary Wait. Leslie's Monthly Magazine, June 1904. GGA Image ID # 14633f42f4

Life on the Steerage-Passengers' Deck on the SS Lahn.

Life on the Steerage-Passengers' Deck on the SS Lahn. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 1460454e9d

Preparing to Serve a Meal to Steerage Passengers on the Lahn from the Food-tanks and Bread-baskets.

Preparing to Serve a Meal to Steerage Passengers on the Lahn from the Food-tanks and Bread-baskets. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 1460613e26

Mid Voyage Scenes in Steerage.

Mid Voyage Scenes in Steerage. Mora; Syrian Jews; Prostrated by the Swell; Children Escaping Seasickness. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 146068995f

A Diverse Group of Immigrants in the Steerage.

A Diverse Group of Immigrants in the Steerage. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 14a84900d8

Left: Young Immigrant Child Holding a Broth Cup. Right: The Immigrant Madanna.

Left: Young Immigrant Child Holding a Broth Cup. Right: The Immigrant Madanna. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 14a860b8f5

Life in Steerage Aboard the Prinzessin Irene.

Life in Steerage Aboard the Prinzessin Irene. Men's Sleeping Quarters; Ladiling Out Food; The Purser Hurling Passengers About; and, Out on the Forecastle's Head. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 145fead460

Part of the Author's Party in Steerage. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904.

Part of the Author's Party in Steerage. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 14a7b2634a

Steerage Passengers Gaze at the Statue of Liberty as they Enter the New York Harbor.

Steerage Passengers Gaze at the Statue of Liberty as they Enter the New York Harbor. Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans 1904. GGA Image ID # 14a82dd514

Steerage Passengers Taking Life Easy on an Ocean Liner circa 1905.

Steerage Passengers Taking Life Easy on an Ocean Liner circa 1905. Immigrants. Open deck with bridge in background 3 funnels in center, immigrants walking and seated at sides of image. Library of Congress # 2005693063. GGA Image ID # 145ef67d24

Steerage Passengers On Deck of Ocean Liner as Seen by a Lady of the First Cabin.

Steerage Passengers On Deck of Ocean Liner as Seen by a Lady of the First Cabin. The Fellowship of the Steerage Makes Good Comrades, Where no Barriers Exist and Introductions are Neither Possible nor Necessary. From Stergraph. Copyright © 1905 by Underwood & Underwood, NY. GGA Image ID # 146b639daa

Immigrants in Steerage Crowd the Deck of the SS Patricia as it Sails into the New York Harbor 10 December 1906.

Immigrants in Steerage Crowd the Deck of the SS Patricia as it Sails into the New York Harbor 10 December 1906. Edwin Levick, Library of Congress # 97501073. GGA Image ID # 145cf746d6

Steerage Passengers on the Deck of the SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria circa 1906.

Steerage Passengers on the Deck of the SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria circa 1906. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2014688582. GGA Image ID # 145fcd88e2

Immigrants from Steerage on Deck of SS Frederich Der Grosse circa 1907.

Immigrants from Steerage on Deck of SS Frederich Der Grosse circa 1907. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2001704435. GGA Image ID # 145d3970fe

Aliens Leaving America in December 1907, to Return to Europe.

Aliens Leaving America in December 1907, to Return to Europe. The Eastbound steerage business on the Atlantic liners last month was unprecedented. Photograph by Brown Bros., New York. The American Review of Reviews, January 1908. GGA Image ID # 147a15f449

Scenes of the Steerage - 1908.

Scenes of the Steerage. Top Left: Trying to Keep Clean Under Difficulties; Bottom Left: Mother's Effort to Guard Child Against Vermin; Top Right: A Happy Family Group; Bottom Right: Sick Women Without Attendance. The Home Missionary, January 1908. GGA Image ID # 1467c7ae14

The Beds in the Men's Section of Steerage.

The Beds in the Men's Section of Steerage. The Home Missionary, January 1908. GGA Image ID # 14680e02ec

Serving Meals to the Passengers in Steerage -- How Not to Do Meals.

Serving Meals to the Passengers in Steerage -- How Not to Do Meals. The Home Missionary, January 1908. GGA Image ID # 146846ccea

The Result of Having No Dining Room Accommodations in Steerage.

The Result of Having No Dining Room Accommodations in Steerage. The Home Missionary, January 1908. GGA Image ID # 1468505274

Immigrants in the Steerage Peeling Potatoes on Deck.

Immigrants in the Steerage Peeling Potatoes on Deck. The Home Missionary, January 1908. GGA Image ID # 14685e12fd

Immigrants Driven Out from the Steerage While Between-Deck Cleaning Takes Place.

Immigrants Driven Out from the Steerage While Between-Deck Cleaning Takes Place. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 146af9d5d8

The Steerage Deck Standpipe is the Only Means of Bathing.

The Steerage Deck Standpipe is the Only Means of Bathing. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 1468719352

A Mother's Effort to Keep Her Children Clean in the Steerage.

A Mother's Effort to Keep Her Children Clean in the Steerage. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 146888061b

Steerage Deck Scene Showing How Days Are Passed in Crowded Conditions.

Steerage Deck Scene Showing How Days Are Passed in Crowded Conditions. Man in Foreground on Right Often Acted as Interpreter. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 14688d68e3

Jewish Steerage Passengers Engage in a Food Strike by Piling Their Dinner on the Deck in Protest Against Its Poor Quality.

Jewish Steerage Passengers Engage in a Food Strike by Piling Their Dinner on the Deck in Protest Against Its Poor Quality. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 1468968f45

Steerage Passengers Appeal to the Captain for Better Food and Treatment.

Steerage Passengers Appeal to the Captain for Better Food and Treatment. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 1468dc6ed7

A Better Class of Immigrants Subjected to Steerage Evil.

A Better Class of Immigrants Subjected to Steerage Evil. The Home Missionary, February 1908. GGA Image ID # 1468e1aa31

The Proper Way to Serve Meals in the Steerage -- Dining Room on Another Steamship Line -- The Ideal Condition.

The Proper Way to Serve Meals in the Steerage -- Dining Room on Another Steamship Line -- The Ideal Condition. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 146932660b

The Steerage Bread Line. Heads of Groups are in Line to Have Their Pails Filled.

The Steerage Bread Line. Heads of Groups are in Line to Have Their Pails Filled. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 1469455e76

Girls in Steerage Dancing National Dance.

Girls in Steerage Dancing National Dance. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 1469498425

Thrifty Women in Steerage Seen Knitting Socks.

Thrifty Women in Steerage Seen Knitting Socks. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 1469972235

Types of Hebrew Girls in Steerage -- Bright and Attractive.

Types of Hebrew Girls in Steerage -- Bright and Attractive. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 1469a02ff2

Polish Immigrants in Steerage Engaged in a Religious Service, Led by the Man with the Book.

Polish Immigrants in Steerage Engaged in a Religious Service, Led by the Man with the Book. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 1469c8148a

An Immigrant Musician of our Party in Steerage.

An Immigrant Musician of our Party in Steerage. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 1469d75fd1

The Steerage Belles, Conscious of their Position.

The Steerage Belles, Conscious of their Position. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 146a8c98a5

The Polish Women in Steerage are Good Natured and Home Loving.

The Polish Women in Steerage are Good Natured and Home Loving. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 146a9b0cc4

Hebrew Children Playing Games on the Steerage Deck.

Hebrew Children Playing Games on the Steerage Deck. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 146aa44ada

Two Young Women in Steerage the Writer tried to Protect.

Two Young Women in Steerage the Writer tried to Protect. The Home Missionary, March 1908. GGA Image ID # 146ad32c09

Examining the Sleeping Accomodations for Steerage Passengers.

Inspectors from the Board of Trade Examine the Sleeping Accommodations for Steerage Passengers. The Syren & Shipping Illustrated, 24 June 1908. GGA Image ID # 147366c336

Steerage Passengers Dancing on Lower Level of the Kaiserin Auguste Victoria while Second Class Passengers Look On.

Steerage Passengers Dancing on Lower Level of the Kaiserin Auguste Victoria while Second Class Passengers Look On. No Date, circa 1910. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2014688506. GGA Image ID # 1466fb7576

Group of Steerage Passengers on the Deck of the SS Amsterdam circa 1910.

Group of Steerage Passengers on the Deck of the SS Amsterdam circa 1910. Frances Benjamin Johnson Collection, Library of Congress # 2006675985. GGA Image ID # 145ea46c92

Steerage Children at Play on the Deck of the SS Frederich Der Grosse circa 1910.

Steerage Children at Play on the Deck of the SS Frederich Der Grosse circa 1910. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2001704433. GGA Image ID # 145f99e5f1

The Steerage, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz 1907

"The Steerage" a 1907 Photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz taken on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II. Camera Work No 36, October 1911. GGA Image ID # 147a072566

Black and White Version - "The Steerage" a 1907 Photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz taken on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Black and White Version - "The Steerage" a 1907 Photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz taken on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II. Camera Work No 36, October 1911. GGA Image ID # 147a10557b

View of the Steerage Promenade on the Titanic. Benches Line the Side and a Gathering of Third-Class Passengers Appears in the Background.

View of the Steerage Promenade on the Titanic. Benches Line the Side and a Gathering of Third-Class Passengers Appears in the Background. Francis Patrick Mary Browne, SJ, MC & Bar (3 January 1880 – 7 July 1960). GGA Image ID # 1109824220

Two Widows and Their Children. Steerage Survivors Who Will Find the Relief Fund a Godsend.

Two Widows and Their Children. Steerage Survivors Who Will Find the Relief Fund a Godsend. © Underwood & Underwood. The Literary Digest (4 May 1912) p. 919. GGA Image ID # 10867a42f9

Steerage Survivors of the RMS Empress of Ireland - Miss Anna Hammen, Miss Hilma Kalis, and Miss Hilma Goosettill.

Steerage Survivors of the RMS Empress of Ireland - Miss Anna Hammen, Miss Hilma Kalis, and Miss Hilma Goosettill. The RMS Empress of Ireland sank near the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River following a collision in thick fog with the Norwegian collier SS Storstad in the early hours of 29 May 1914. Of the 1,477 people on board, 1,012 died, making it the worst peacetime marine disaster in Canadian history. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2014696148. GGA Image ID # 145fd3252c

Third Class / Steerage Four-Berth Room. 1912 Brochure RMS Franconia and Laconia - Cunard Line.

Third Class / Steerage Four-Berth Room. 1912 Brochure RMS Franconia and Laconia - Cunard Line. GGA Image ID # 118805de77

Third Class / Steerage Dining Room. 1912 Brochure RMS Franconia and Laconia - Cunard Line.

Third Class / Steerage Dining Room. 1912 Brochure RMS Franconia and Laconia - Cunard Line. GGA Image ID # 11885a4643

Third Class / Steerage Ladies' Room. 1912 Brochure RMS Franconia and Laconia - Cunard Line.

Third Class / Steerage Ladies' Room. 1912 Brochure RMS Franconia and Laconia - Cunard Line. GGA Image ID # 11887657af

Steerage Passengers at the Bow of the SS Frederich der Gross circa 1915.

Steerage Passengers at the Bow of the SS Frederich der Gross circa 1915. Bain Collection, Library of Congress # 2014707273. GGA Image ID # 145f5b3048

Bibliography

Maximilian Foster, "A Sea Captain's Day's Work," in The World's Work, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, Vol. 1, No. 6, April 1901, p. 631-639.

Broughton Brandenburg, "Imported Americans: IV. The Voyage," in Leslie's Monthly Magazine, New York: Frank Leslie Publishing House, Volume LVII, No. 1, May 1904, p. 68-78.

Broughton Brandenburg, "Imported Americans: V. Through Ellis Island," in Leslie's Monthly Magazine, New York: Frank Leslie Publishing House, Volume LVIII, No. 2, June 1904, p. 162-171.

Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans: The story of the experiences of a disquised American and his wife studying the immigration question, New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, Publishers, 1904.

"From an Immigrant's Logbook: Part I. Some Experiences of an Unknown in the Steerage -- A Narrative of Fact, Not Fiction -- Conditions that Should be Abolished," in The Home Missionary Vol. LXXXI, No. 8, January 1908, p. 271-278.

"From an Immigrant's Logbook: Part II. Some Experiences of an Unknown in Steerage -- Companionship -- Food and Service -- Lack of Discipline -- Cruel Treatment -- A Problem of Morality and Humanity," in The Home Missionary Vol. LXXXI, No. 9, February 1908, p. 307-314.

"From an Immigrant's Logbook: Part III. The Treatment that Makes the Passengers Desperate -- Needless Irriatation -- Cruelty and Insult -- Suggestions as to Better Conditions and Needed Remedies," in The Home Missionary Vol. LXXXI, No. 10, March 1908, p. 343-353.

End Notes

Note 1: An Immigrant's Log Book - a three part series in The Home Missionary Magazine provided an explanation for the poor quality photographs: "Our readers will have noticed that the engravings used have not been of of the highest order. The pictures are amateur work, were taken under great difficulties, and surrepitiously; but however imperfect, they are probably the only pictures of their kind." (The Home Missionary, March 1908, p. 360)

Return to Top of Page
<

Steerage Passenger Accommodations
GG Immigration Archives

Steerage Accommodations and Conditions

Copyright © 2000- Gjenvick-Gjønvik Archives. All rights reserved. See Terms of Use.