Emigration from Liverpool in 1859
The official returns of the emigration from Liverpool during the year just closed have now been completed at the government office; and although, on comparison with the year preceding, the numbers in the aggregate do not appear to vary very materially, the variation in the tide of emigration to the different countries has been most marked. The total number of passengers, "under the act," who have taken their departure from the Mersey during the twelve months just elapsed have numbered (inclusive of cabin passengers) 68,035, against 70,486 in 1858, being a decrease of 2,441.
During the past year, to the United States, 168 ships, of 286,960 tons, sailed, with 1,561 cabin and 47,137 steerage passengers, "under the act," against, in 1858, 167 ships, of 256,556 tons, with 1,446 cabin and 43,180 steerage passengers, being a falling off of about 300.
In "short ships," not "under the act," or submitted to government inspection, 143 vessels sailed in 1859, with 5,203 cabin and 2,283 steerage passengers. These "short ships" include all travelers by the Cunard, Canadian, and African mail steamers, etc.
To Canada, the departures numbered only three vessels "under the act," of 2,859 tons, with 544 steerage passengers, against, in 1858, 7 ships of 8,027 tons, with 12 cabin and 1,934 steerage passengers. However, in 1859, "short ships" carried to the Canadian provinces 1,958 cabin and 2,118 steerage passengers.
To the Australian colonies, the greatest falling off has been exhibited, scarcely more than two-thirds the number of emigrants having left the Mersey during the past year. Fifty-two ships, of 72,189 tons, sailed to Victoria, with 508 cabin and 9,883 steerage passengers against, in 1858, 66 ships, of 90,888 tons, with 690 cabin and 15,662 steerage passengers.
To Melbourne, 18 "short ships" took their departure with 32 cabin and 333 steerage passengers.
To New South Wales 9 ships, of 10,154 tons, saled, with 4 cabin and 3,476 steerage passengers -- the great proportion being government emigrants, dispatched by the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners -- against 9 vessels, of 9,579 tons, with a like number of cabin and 3,455 steerage passengers, being a slight improvement over 1858. Only 8 cabin passengers were conveyed to New South Wales in "short ships" during the year.
To South Australia 3 ships of 2,443 tons, were engaged in the conveyance of 1,052 government emigrants, against, in 1858, 5 vessels, of 5,881 tons with 1,991 passengers, also at the expense of the Emigration Commissioners. None carried out in "short ships." A feature which distinguishes last year's Liverpool emigration has been the dispatch of 6 vessels, of 6,704 tons, which carried out 104 cabin and 1,317 steerage passengers -- the same number of sailings with passengers direct being heretofore unheard of.
To the Cape of Good Hope the departures comprised 4 vessels, of 2,860 tons, with 7 cabin and 993 steerage passengers, against, in 1858, 6 ships, of 5,420 tons, with 10 cabin and 2,059 steerage passengers -- the latter in both years being sent out at the colonial expense -- the selections of the commissioner in London, the Hon. William Field; 10 cabin passengers were, in addition, "short shipped" to the Cape of Good Hope.
To the East Indies, 3 ships "under the act" were dispatched during the second half of the past year, with 1,544 steerage passengers, all sodiers' wives and children, (which can hardly be classed as passengers,) and 13 "short ships" sailed, with 96 cabin and 20 steerage passengers; the unfortunate Accrington, which has put into the Brazils, with 65 deaths among the passengers, and captain and mate poisoned, was one of the former class. In addition to the foregoing, the following "short ships" have sailed during the year:
To America, 35 ships, with 230 cabin and 38 steerage passengers
To Africa, 12 mail steamships carried 296 cabin passengers
To the West Indies, 5 vessels, with 39 cabin passengers
To New Brunswick, 3 ships, with 31 cabin and 3 steerage passengers
To NOva Scotia, 1 cabin and 4 steerage passengers
To Prince Edward Island, 9 cabin passengers
To China, 4 cabin passengers
making a grand total, "under the act" and "not under the act," of 10,103 cabin and 71,652 steerage -- 81,755 passengers, or an average of nearly 7,000 souls per month sailing from Liverpool. With the exception of the melancholy losses of the Royal Charter, Pomona, Indian, etc., there have been no features calling for particular notice in glancing at the emigration for the year, which closes, as usual at this season, at almost it dullest point.
Source: Hunt's Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, March, 1860, Pages 388-389