Soufflé - Definition and Recipes
It will be sufficient to observe on the subject of soufflés, that they are all made in the same manner, and that they vary only in the taste you give them. If sent up in proper time they are particularly good eating, if not, they are no better than other puddings.
WHAT is a soufflé? or, rather, what should it be? An exceptionally light pudding, either sweet or savory, steamed or baked. There are writers on the cuisine who assert that no one can learn to make a soufflé by reading, and that a practical lesson is the only thing to ensure success.
I think otherwise. I yield to no one in my belief in the value of practical training for any sort of work; but I am of opinion that any person of average intelligence who can make a pudding worthy the name should be able to concoct an eatable soufflé (not, perhaps, a first-rate one) although she had never watched the operation.
Why? Just because certain principles underlie the art of the making of soufflés, and if these are committed to memory, the rest should be plain sailing.
Soufflé preparations are of two kinds: (1) Those prepared with cream, which if necessary may serve for all soufflés; (2) those with a fruit-purée base, which allow of a more pronounced flavor for fruit soufflés than if these were prepared with cream.
Cream-soufflé Preparation for Four People:
- Boil one-sixth pint of milk with one oz. of sugar; add a tablespoonful of flour diluted in a little cold milk; cook for two minutes.
- Finish, away from the fire, with a piece of butter the size of a walnut, and two egg-yolks with three whites whisked to a stiff froth.
Soufflé Preparation for a Big Party:
- Thoroughly mix half-lb. of flour, half-lb. of sugar, four eggs and the yolks of three, in a saucepan. Dilute with one quart of boiling milk; add a stick of vanilla; boil, and cook for two minutes, stirring incessantly the while.
- Finish, away from the fire, with four oz. of butter, five egg yolks, and twelve whites, whisked to a very stiff froth.
Soufflé Preparation with a Fruit Base:
- Take one lb. of sugar cooked to the small-crack stage; add thereto one lb. of the pulp or purée of the fruit under treatment, and ten egg-whites, beaten to a stiff froth.
- Proceed thus: Having cooked the sugar to the extent stated above, add to it the fruit pulp. If the latter reduces the sugar a stage or two, cook it afresh in order to return it to the small. crack stage; and, when this is reached, pour it over the whites.
Dishing and Cooking of Soufflés:
- Whatever the soufflés may consist of, dish them in a timbale, or in a special false-bottomed dish, buttered and sugared in ide. Cook in a somewhat moderate oven, that the heat may reacts the centre of the soufflé by degrees.
- Two minutes before withdrawing the soufflé from the oven, sprinkle it with icing sugar, which, when it becomes caramel upon the surface of the soufflé, constitutes the glazing.
- The decoration of soufflés is optional, and, in any case, should not be overdone.
- Although soufflés are generally served unaccompanied, some stewed, seasonable fruit, or a macédoine of fresh fruit, may, nevertheless, be served with them. This, of course, only applies to soufflés with a fruit base.
FRUIT SOUFFLE IN A CROUSTADE
- Line a round, shallow, well-buttered, croustade-mold with a very thin layer of sugared paste. Spread some vanilla-flavored, stewed apples on the bottom, and upon it lay a garnish of various seasonable fresh stewed fruits—quartered if large. The mold ought now to be half-filled.
- Fill it up with a vanilla-flavored soufflé preparation, and cook it in a moderate oven for about twenty-five minutes.
- On withdrawing it from the oven, carefully turn it out on a dish; pour a few tablespoons of heated rum into the latter, and set a light to it when serving.
- Make a preparation of soufflé with cream, but use almond milk instead of cow's milk, add one and a half oz. of slightly-grilled, chopped almonds, per half pint of almond milk. Dish and cook in the usual way.
SOUFFLE WITH FRESH ALMONDS
- Proceed exactly as above, but use fresh splintered almonds instead of grilled, chopped ones.
SOUFFLE WITH FILBERT
- Make the soufflé preparation from milk in which two oz. of filbert praline per one-sixth pint have previously been infused. Dish and cook the soufflé in the usual way.
SOUFFLE A LA CAMARGO
- Make a soufflé preparation of tangerines, and another of filberts as above. Dish the two preparations in layers, alternated by “lady's-finger biscuits,” saturated with Curaçao liqueur.
- Take vanilla-flavored, soufflé preparation, thickened somewhat more than the ordinary kind, and add to it five tablespoons of strawberry purée. Serve some well-cooled strawberries, coated with raspberry purée, separately.
- Prepare a soufflé with Kirsch, accompany it with some stewed stoned cherries, covered with a raspberry purée.
- This is a soufflé with Kirsch, accompanied by iced strawberries macerated in orange juice.
POMEGRANATE SOUFFLE “A L'ORIENTALE”
- Make a soufflé preparation, slightly flavored with vanilla. Dish it in layers in a timbale, alternated by “lady's-finger biscuits" saturated with Grenadine and Kirsch. On withdrawing the soufflé from the oven, cover it with a veil of spun sugar, and sprinkle the latter with small sweets, flavored with Grenadine, in imitation of pomegranate seeds.
- Make the soufflé preparation, but use tea instead of milk, and add thereto one and a half oz. of chopped pistachios per one-sixth pint of the tea.
- Take some ordinary soufflé preparation, flavored with Lérina liqueur, which is a kind of Chartreuse, made in the Lérina islands.
SOUFFLE WITH LIQUEUR
- This soufflé may be made, either from the soufflé with cream preparation or from that with fruit, given in the note.
- The soufflés made from cream are flavored with such liqueurs as rhum, curaçao, anisette, vanilla, etc.
- Those made from fruit are flavored with Kirsch, Kümmel, etc.
- Set a savarin, saturated with Kirsch-flavored syrup, upon a dish, and surround it with a band of paper, tied on with string, in order to prevent the soufflé from drying during the cooking process.
- Make a soufflé preparation with a fruit base, set it in the centre of the savarin, and cook it in the usual way.
- This is a lemon soufflé, accompanied by fine strawberries, well cooled and coated with a purée of fresh raspberries
SOUFFLE “A LA D'ORLÉANS”
- Take some cream soufflé-preparation, combined with pieces of Jeanne-d'Arc biscuits (a kind of Rheims biscuit), saturated with peach liqueur and Kirsch, and one oz. each of half-sugared cherries and angelica, cut into dice.
- Take some vanilla-flavored soufflé preparation. Set it in a timbale, in layers alternated by lady's-finger biscuits saturated with anisette and Kirsch. Cook in the usual way.
- SOUFFLE PRALINE
- Take some vanilla-flavored soufflé preparation; add to it two ounces of almond praline which should have previously infused in milk. When the soufflé is dished, sprinkle its surface with grilled chopped almonds, or crushed burnt almonds.
- ROTHSCHILD SOUFFLE
- Take some cream soufflé-preparation, combined with three ounces of candied fruit, cut into dice and macerated in Dantzig brandy, containing plenty of gold spangles.
- When the soufflé is almost cooked, set on it a border of fine strawberries (in season), or half-sugared, preserved cherries.
- It should be remembered, however, that the correct procedure demands the use of strawberries in full season.
SOUFFLE A LA ROYALE
- Take some vanilla-flavored soufflé-preparation. Dish it in a timbale in alternate layers with lady's-finger biscuits, saturated with Kirsch; and distribute thereon such fruits as pine-apple, cherries, angelica and grapes—all cut into dice, and previously macerated in Kirsch.
- Take some cream soufflé-preparation, made from milk in which a stick of vanilla has been previously infused.
- Take some vanilla-flavored soufflé preparation, combined with crushed crystallized violets. When the soufflé is dished, set on it a crown of large crystallized violets, and cook in the usual way.
SOUFFLE DE CANETON ROUENNAIS
- Poèle the duckling, and only just cook it.
- Raise the suprémes, and keep them hot, and cut the bones from the carcass.
- With the duckling's liver, the raw meat of another half-duckling, the white of an egg, and three oz. of raw foie gras, prepare a mousseline forcemeat.
- Fill the carcass with this forcemeat, shaping it so as to reconstruct the bird.
- Surround it with a band of strong, buttered paper, so as to avoid loss of shape, and poach gently, undercover, for twenty minutes
- With some reserved forcemeat, combined with an equal weight of foie-gras purée, garnish some tartlet crusts, and poach them at the same time as the soufflé.
- Dish the piece; surround it with the tartlets; set a collop of supréme on each of the latter, and serve a Rouennaise sauce separately.
SOUFFLE DE CHICOREE
- Braise about one-half lb. of chicory, keeping it somewhat stiff, and rub it through a sieve. Add to it the yolks of three eggs, also two oz. of grated Parmesan and the whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth.
- Dish in a buttered timbale; sprinkle with grated Parmesan, and cook after the manner of an ordinary soufflé.
- N.B.-This soufflé of chicory may also be cooked in small cases, and it makes an excellent garnish for large pieces of veal or ham.
SOUFFLE D'ÉCREVISSES A LA FLORENTINE
- Make a preparation of Soufflé au Parmesan combined with two tablespoons of crayfish cream per pint.
- The cream is prepared after the manner of lobster cream
- Put this preparation in a buttered timbale in alternate layers separated by litters of sliced truffle and crayfish tails.
- Cook the soufflé after the manner of an ordinary one.
SOUFFLE D'ÉCREVISSES LÉOPOLD DE ROTHSCHILD
- Prepare a soufflé as above, and add thereto a bare tablespoon of freshly-cooked asparagus and slices of truffle, and crayfish tails placed between the layers of the soufflé preparation.
- Cook as above.
SOUFFLE d'ÉCREVISSES A LA PIEMONTAISE
- This is identical to above recipe, except that the ordinary truffles are replaced by shavings of Piedmont truffles.
SOUFFLE AUX ÉPINARDS (SPINACH)
- Braise about one-half lb. of spinach, and rub it through a sieve. Add to it the yolks of three eggs, also two oz. of grated Parmesan and the whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth.
- Spread this composition in two or three layers, and set on each of the latter a litter of well-cleaned and soaked anchovy fillets, arranged to form a lattice.
- Finish with a layer of spinach shaped like a dome, and set thereon two crossed rows of anchovy fillets. Cook after the manner of an ordinary soufflé.
SOUFFLE AUX ÉPINARDS AUX TRUFFES
- Proceed as directed in the preceding recipe, but substitute anchovy fillets for some fine slices of truffle.
- N.B.-Both these spinach soufflés may be served either as vegetables, in which case they are molded in large timbales, or as garnishes, when they are dished in small cassolettes of appropriate size.
- They are very delicate preparations, which may be varied by watercress soufflé—prepared in the same way.
SOUFFLE DE FOIE GRAS
- Rub two-thirds lb. of foie gras and three and one-half oz. of raw truffles through a fine sieve.
- Mix the two purées in a basin, and add two-thirds lb. of raw chicken-meat, pounded with the whites of four eggs, and rubbed through a fine sieve.
- Season; work the preparation on ice, and add to it, little by little, one-half pint of rich, thick, and very fresh cream, then the well-stiffened whites of four eggs.
- Dish in a buttered soufflé saucepan, and poach under cover in the bain-marie for from thirty to thirty-five minutes.
- Serve a Madeira sauce, flavored with truffle essence, separately.
SOUFFLES DE HOMARD
- For lobster soufflés the same forcemeat is used as for the mousselines; but, unlike the latter, it is poached in the half carapaces of the lobster, the meat of which has served in its preparation.
- The procedure is as follows: First cook the two half-carapaces carefully, that they may not lose their shape in the process.
- After having drained and dried them, fill them with mousseline forcemeat and surround them with strong, buttered paper, which should be tied on with string, and should overreach the edges of the carapaces by one inch.
- The object of this measure is to prevent the forcemeat from spilling during the poaching.
- Lay the two garnished carapaces on a tray containing just enough boiling water to moisten its whole surface.
- Put the tray in a moderate oven or in a steamer, and allow from fifteen to twenty minutes for the soufflé to poach.
- This done, carefully drain the two carapaces; remove the paper holding in the forcemeat; dish them on a napkin, and surround them with bunches of very green, curled-leaf parsley.
- Serve separately a sauce in keeping with the preparation; i.e., a Normande, a White-wine, a Diplomate, or a Béchamel finished with lobster butter.
- N.B. The forcemeat may be garnished with truffles in dice, slices of lobster, milt, or poached oysters, which garnishes may also be laid on the soufflé when it is finished.
- This is a variety of the ham soufflés given hereafter. The preparation used is the same, and it may be made either from raw or from cooked ham.
- After having completely boned it, but for the end bone, which must be kept, cook the ham, and cool it.
- Now cut it horizontally, one-half inch above its bone, from the extremity of the end bone to the head of the latter.
- At the last-mentioned point, make a vertical incision meeting and ending at the first; remove the cushion of ham, which should by now be quite separated from the rest of the joint, and put aside for some future purpose.
- All that remains of the ham, therefore, is a thick piece adhering to the end-bone. Carefully trim this piece, and surround it with a strong band of buttered paper, tied on by means of string, the purpose of which is to hold in the soufflé.
- This done, put a sufficient quantity of soufflé de Jambon (described hereafter) on the remaining meat of the ham to reconstruct it entirely. Smooth the surface of the preparation with the flat of a knife (dipped in cold water), and so finish off the contour of the ham.
- Decorate according to fancy; place the dish containing the ham on a saucepanful) of boiling water, and put the two in the oven with the view of obtaining the maximum amount of steam, which latter helps to poach the soufflé.
- This souffléd ham may be poached just as well in a steamer.
- When the preparation is properly poached, remove the band of paper; dish the ham, and send one of the garnishes or sauces given for braised ham separately.
SOUFFLES AU JAMBON
- Ham soufflés are prepared after two recipes; in the first, cooked ham is used, and in the second the ham is raw. This last procedure is derived from mousseline forcemeat, and, in as much as the preparation resulting from it is less flimsy than that of the first, it is preferred when a large number of people have to be served.
- THE PREPARATION OF THE SOUFFLE WITH COOKED HAM
- Finely pound one lb. of lean, cooked ham, and add thereto, one after the other, three tablespoons of very cold Béchamel sauce.
- Rub through a fine sieve; put the resulting purée into a sauté pan, and finish with one-quarter pint of very creamy and boiling Béchamel sauce, flavored with ham essence; four egg yolks, and the whites of six eggs, beaten to a stiff froth.
- This preparation may be combined with three oz. of grated Parmesan, and the two flavors will be found to blend very agreeably.
- Prepared in this way, it is particularly well suited to the “Jambon Soufflé,” the recipe whereof is given above.
- THE PREPARATION OF THE SOUFFLE WITH RAW HAM
- Make the soufflé preparation, and add thereto four tablespoons of reduced and very cold Béchamel sauce per lb. of raw ham.
- Keep the forcemeat somewhat stiff, and finish it with the whites of four eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, per lb. of ham.
SOUFFLE DE JAMBON ALEXANDRA
- Make the soufflé preparation after one of the methods given above. Spread it in layers in a buttered timbale, alternating the layers of soufflé with others of asparagus-heads cohered with butter.
- Smooth the surface to the shape of a dome; decorate with a fine slice of truffle, and cook in a moderate oven, of a temperature suited to this kind of preparation.
- Serve the soufflé as soon as it is ready.
- If it be small, spread only one layer of asparagus-heads in the middle of it.
- If it be large, spread two or three layers of asparagus-heads.
SOUFFLE DE JAMBON CARMEN
- Add to the selected one of the two soufflé preparations— either will do—for one lb. of ham, the purée of one-half lb. of pressed tomatoes, cooked in butter with one half-capsicum, rubbed through a sieve and very much reduced.
- Dish the soufflé in a buttered timbale; sprinkle the surface with a pinch of red capsicum, cut in fine julienne fashion, and cook as described above.
SOUFFLE DE JAMBON GASTRONOME
- Dish the selected ham soufflé preparation in layers in a buttered timbale, and between each layer of it spread a litter of noodles, tossed in butter.
- Sprinkle the surface with chopped truffles; set a ball of truffle well in the centre of the soufflé, and cook in the usual way.
SOUFFLE DE JAMBON MILANAISE
- Dish the ham soufflé preparation in a buttered timbale, and spread it in alternate layers with a fine garnish a la Milanaise.
- Deck the surface with small pieces of poached macaroni, fried in butter; sprinkle with grated cheese, and cook the soufflé in a moderate oven.
SOUFFLE DE JAMBON PERIGOURDINE
- Dish the soufflé preparation in layers in a buttered timbale, and between each layer spread a litter of truffle slices.
- Besprinkle the surface with chopped truffles, and cook the soufflé in the usual way.
SOUFFLE AU PARMESAN
- Mix one lb. of flour and two and one-half pints of milk in a saucepan. Add a little salt, pepper and nutmeg, and set the preparation to boil, stirring it constantly the while.
- As soon as the boil is reached, take the saucepan off the fire, and add one lb. of grated Parmesan, three oz. of butter, and ten egg-yolks. Rub the whole through tammy and then combine with it the whites of ten eggs whisked to a stiff froth.
- Mold in a silver timbale, lined with a band of buttered paper, and bake in the oven for from twenty to twenty-five minutes.
- Boil one pint of milk with one-fifth oz. of salt; sprinkle on it two oz. of maize flour; mix well; cover, and cook in a mild oven for twenty-five minutes.
- Then transfer the paste to another saucepan; work it with one and one-half oz. of butter and as much grated Parmesan; mix therewith one egg, two egg-yolks, and the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth.
- Dish in a buttered timbale; sprinkle with grated cheese, and cook like an ordinary soufflé.
SOUFFLE DE POMMES DE TERRE
- Prepare a pint of mashed potatoes with cream; add thereto the raw yolks of three eggs and their whites beaten to a stiff froth.
- Set in a buttered soufflé saucepan, or in small porcelain cases, and cook like an ordinary soufflé.
SOUFFLES DE VOLAILLE (CHICKEN)
- For dinners on a large scale, it is in every way preferable to use raw chicken-meat. For small services, cooked chicken meat suits perfectly.
- N.B.-The time allowed for cooking chicken soufflés with cooked chicken-meat is comparatively long, and it is better to cook them a little too much than not enough.
- For a soufflé made in a quart timbale, and cooked in a moderate oven as directed, allow from about twenty-five to thirty minutes.
- SOUFFLE DE VOLAILLE WITH RAW MEAT
- Prepare two lbs. of mousseline forcemeat of chicken, add to this the whites of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth.
- Dish in buttered timbales, and cook in a moderate oven.
- SOUFFLE DE VOLAILLE WITH COOKED MEAT
- Finely pound one lb. of the white of cooked chicken-meat; add thereto six tablespoons of cold, reduced, Béchamel sauce.
- Rub through tammy.
- Heat this preparation in a saucepan, without allowing it to boil, and add to it one and one-half oz. of butter, the yolks of five eggs, and the whites of six, beaten to a stiff froth.
- Dish in a buttered timbale, and cook in a moderate oven.
- Suprême sauce and the other derivatives of Allemande sauce form the best accompaniments to chicken soufflés.
SOUFFLE DE VOLAILLE A LA PERIGORD
- This may be made from either one of the two above-mentioned preparations, but there must be added to it three and one half oz. of chopped truffles.
- The preparation is then spread in layers separated by slices of truffle, which should weigh about three and one-half oz. in all, in order to be in proportion to the quantities already given.