Foie Gras - Definition and Recipes
PREPARATION OF FOIE GRAS
- Foies gras are supplied either by geese or ducks. Goose's liver is larger, firmer and less readily melted than that of the duck. As a rule, the former should be selected in preference, more particularly in the matter of hot dishes. Nevertheless, failing goose's liver, duck’s liver may be used and with very good results when its quality is good.
- Foies gras are used in the preparation of terrines, raised pies, parfaits and mousses, which are among the most delicate and richest of cold dishes.
- They may also be used as a garnishing ingredient, in the form of collops or mousseline quenelles. Finally, they may also be served as hot entrées.
- When a whole foie gras is to be served hot, it must first be trimmed, studded with raw truffles which have been previously peeled, quartered, seasoned with salt and pepper, stiffened in a glassful of brandy, together with a bay-leaf, and cooled in a thoroughly closed terrine.
- When the foie gras has been studded with truffles, wrap it in thin slices of bacon or a piece of pig's caul, and set it in a thoroughly-sealed terrine before cooking it.
- The best way to cook foie gras, when it is to be served whole and hot, is to bake it in a crust of paste that can absorb the excess of grease produced by the melting of the liver. For this purpose, prepare two layers of patty paste, a little larger than the liver.
- On one of these layers, set the liver wrapped in slices of bacon; and, if possible, surround it with whole fair-sized truffles, peeled. Set half a bay-leaf on the liver; moisten the edges of the paste; cover the whole with the other layer of paste; seal it down with the thumb, and fold over the edges of the paste to form a regular, ornamented border which, besides finishing off the preparation, also increases the strength of the welding.
- Gild the top; streak; make a slit in the top for the escape of the steam; and, in the case of a medium-sized liver, cook in a good, moderate oven for from forty to forty-five minutes.
- Serve this crust as it stands, and send the garnish separately.
- In the dining-room, the waiter in charge removes the top of the crust, cuts out the liver with a spoon, setting a piece on each plate, and arranges around each piece the garnish mentioned on the menu.
- The best garnishes for hot foie gras are noodles, macaroni, lasagnas, spaghetti and even rice, all finished with cream; and truffles, whole or in slices, or a la Financière.
- In the matter of brown sauces, a Madeira sauce suits admirably, provided it be of great delicacy and not overcharged with Madeira; but a very light buttered, veal or
- chicken glaze, combined with a little old Sherry or old Port, is even superior.
- A Hongroise sauce with paprika or an excellent suprême sauce may also be served when the garnish admits of it.
ASPIC DE FOIE GRAS
- Clothe an even or ornamented mold (fitted with a central tube) with aspic and decorate it with poached white of egg and truffle.
- Fill it with rows of well-trimmed foie-gras rectangles, or shells raised by means of a spoon dipped in hot water, separating each row with a coat of aspic.
- Except for its principal ingredient, which may vary, the preparation of aspic is always the same as that described under “Aspic de Homard”
- For the turning out and dishing, proceed in the same way.
DELICES DE FOIE GRAS
- Take some fresh, well-seasoned foie gras, studded with truffles, and covered with slices of bacon, and poach it in a basin with good aspic jelly flavored with dry champagne or Rhine wine.
- Leave to cool for twenty-four hours; clear the jelly of grease, first by means of a spoon, and then with boiling water.
- Serve the preparation as it stands, very cold, and accompany it with grilled, crisp, and very hot slices of bread-crumb.
FOIE GRAS GASTRONOME
- Take a plain foie-gras Parfait, i.e., one without a crust; trim it neatly to the shape of an egg, and completely cover it with a chaud-froid sauce with paprika.
- Decorate it according to fancy and glaze it with cold melted jelly.
- Cut out a crust, proportionate in size to the egg, and shape it like a cushion.
- Coat it with a chaud-froid sauce of a different color; deck it with softened butter, applied by means of a piping-bag fitted with a narrow, grooved pipe; set it on the
- dish, and place the foie-gras egg upon it.
- Surround the cushion with fine fair-sized truffles, glazed with aspic jelly.
FOIE GRAS AU PAPRIKA
- Trim a fine, fresh foie gras; salt it; sprinkle it with a teaspoon of paprika; put it into a saucepan with a large sliced Spanish onion and a bay-leaf and cook in the oven for thirty minutes.
- This done, set it instantly in an oval terrine, after having carefully removed every bit of onion; cover it with its own grease; fill up the terrine with jelly, and leave to cool.
- Keep in the cool until ready for serving.
- N.B.-In Vienna, where this dish is usually served as an hors-d'oeuvre, with baked potatoes, the onion is not removed. The foie gras is left to cool in the terrine in which it has cooked, with all its grease, and it is served thus, very cold.
ESCALOPES DE FOIE GRAS MARECHALE
- From a terrine of very firm foie gras cut the required number of collops, giving them an oval shape.
- Make a preparation of “pain de foie gras” with the remains of the terrine, and cover the collops with the preparation, shaping the latter in a dome upon them.
- Coat these garnished collops with cream chaud-froid sauce; decorate with a slice of truffle, and glaze with aspic.
- With some foie-gras purée prepare some balls (of the shape of bigaroons); in the center of each place a little ball of truffle in imitation of the stone of the fruit, and coat them with a reddish-brown, chaud-froid sauce. This done, glaze them with jelly.
- Dish the collops round a circular cushion, set upon a very cold dish; arrange the bigaroons in a pyramid on the cushion, and border the dish with fine, jelly croutons.
ESCALOPES DE FOIE GRAS A LA PERIGUEUX
- Cut some slices two and one-half oz. in weight from a raw foie gras.
- Season them with salt and pepper; dip in beaten egg; roll in finely-chopped truffle, and sauté in clarified butter.
- Dish in a circle, and, in the middle, pour a Madeira sauce flavored with truffle essence.
ESCALOPES DE FOIE GRAS A LA RAVIGNAN
- From a layer of unsugared brioche paste, one-third in. thick, cut twenty roundels two and one-half in. in diameter. On ten of these roundels, spread a coating of chicken forcemeat, leaving a margin one-third in. wide of bare paste on each roundel.
- Set a slice of truffle in the middle, a thick roundel of raw foie gras on the truffle, another slice of truffle upon that, a coat of forcemeat over the whole; and cover with the ten remaining roundels, after having slightly moistened the latter, that the
- two edges of paste may be sealed.
- Press with the back of a round cutter; gild and cook in a hot oven for fifteen minutes.
- Dish in a circle and serve a Périgueux sauce at the same time.
ESCALOPES DE FOIE GRAS A LA TALLEYRAND
- Prepare: (1) a crust made in a flawn-mold, six in. in diameter; (2) a garnish of blanched macaroni, cut into lengths of one in., cohered with four oz. of grated Gruyère and Parmesan cheese per lb. of macaroni, and combined with two oz. of butter, four oz. of a julienne of truffles and four oz. of foie gras cut into large dice.
- Dish in a circle in the crust ten collops of foie gras sautéed in butter, alternating them with fine slices of truffle.
- Put the macaroni in the middle, shaping it like a dome, sprinkle with grated cheese and glaze quickly.
- Dish on a napkin, and serve separately a clear chicken glaze, flavored with truffles and well buttered.
FOIE GRAS CUIT DANS UNE BRIOCHE
- For this dish the foie gras is cooked differently; the result is almost the same as that yielded by the crust prescribed above, except that it is much more delicate. This method, moreover, allows of obtaining a foie gras clear of all grease (the latter being completely absorbed by the paste), and is therefore best suited to cold dishing.
- After having studded the foie gras with truffles and placed it in a closed terrine as above, wrap it in slices of bacon, set it to poach in a moderate oven for twenty minutes, and leave it to cool.
- Line a buttered timbale-mold, of a size in proportion to that of the liver, with a thick layer of ordinary unsugared brioche paste
- Put the foie gras upright in the mold, which it should almost fill; close the timbale with a cover of the same paste: make a slit in the top; surround the top of the mold with a band of strong, buttered paper, that the paste may be prevented from running over, and let it rest for about thirty minutes in a temperature of 86° F. to allow the paste to work.
- Bake in a rather hot oven, until a needle inserted through the center withdraws quite clean.
- Serve the dish as it stands with one of the ordinary foie gras garnishes.
MOUSSE DE FOIE GRAS
- For the preparation of the mousse, add to the foie gras half of its volume of barely whipped cream and pulp it.
- The molding is affected in the same way in a jelly-clothed and decorated mold, generally just large enough to hold the requisite amount for one service, or in a silver timbale, incrusted in ice.
MOUSSELINES DE FOIE GRAS
- Foie gras mousselines are, according to circumstances, either simply glazed with aspic, or coated with chaud-froid sauce and dished in a timbale with jelly.
- They may also be molded in little paper cases.
PAIN DE FOIE GRAS
- From a cold foie gras, braised in Madeira, cut a few collops and put them aside.
- Clear the cooking-liquor of all grease, reduce to half, and add the yolks of four eggs and one-half lb. of butter, proceeding as for a Hollandaise sauce.
- Complete with a grilled, crushed, hazel-nut, two leaves of dissolved gelatin, and, when the preparation is only lukewarm, mix therewith (without working the whole overmuch) what remains of the foie gras, rubbed through a sieve.
- Spread this preparation in layers in an aspic-clothed and decorated mold, separating each layer with other alternate layers consisting of the reserved collops and some slices of truffle.
- Cover the last layer with aspic and set the mold in a refrigerator for a few hours.
- When about to serve, turn out, and border the dish with fine, aspic jelly croutons.
PARFAIT DE FOIE GRAS
- Fresh Foies gras do not bear transport very well, and, when sent from a distance, often reach their destination tainted. It is, therefore, difficult, whatever care may have been bestowed on their preparation, to obtain the results which are achieved by manufacturers who are renowned for this kind of produce.
- Consequently, it is preferable to buy the Parfait of foie gras ready made from a good firm rather than to try to make it oneself.
PAVE DE FOIE GRAS LUCULLUS
- Let a coat of aspic, one-half inch thick, set on the bottom of a square timbale, and lay thereon a few slices of truffle.
- Upon this jelly spread a layer, two-thirds inch thick, of foie-gras purée, thinned by means of a little melted jelly.
- When this purée has set, lay on it a few foie-gras collops and slices of truffle; cover with aspic, and continue thus with alternate layers of purée, collops, and aspic.
- Fill up the mold with a layer of aspic jelly; put it in the refrigerator for a few hours, and dish on a block of ice, cut to the shape of a flagstone.
SOUFFLE DE FOIE GRAS
- Rub two-thirds lb. of foie gras and three and one-half oz. of raw truffles through a fine sieve.
- Mix the two purées in a basin and add two-thirds lb. -- law chicken-meat, pounded with the whites of four eggs, and rubbed through a fine sieve.
- Season; work the preparation on ice, and add to it, little by little, one-half pint of rich, thick, and very fresh cream, then the well-stiffened whites of four eggs.
- Dish in a buttered soufflé saucepan and poach under cover in the bain-marie for from thirty to thirty-five minutes.
- Serve a Madeira sauce, flavored with truffle essence, separately.
TIMBALE DE FOIE GRAS A L’ALSACIENNE
- Prepare an ordinary timbale crust.
- When about to serve, fill it with layers of noodles with cream, separated by alternate layers of foie-gras collops, sautéed in butter, and slices of truffles.
- Complete with some raw noodles, tossed in butter and distributed over the last layer of cohered noodles.
- Cover the timbale, and serve a suprême sauce, flavored with truffle essence, separately.
TIMBALE DE FOIE GRAS CAMBACERES
- Line a buttered dome-mold with rings of large poached macaroni.
- These rings should be one-fifth inch thick and should be garnished inside with very black truffle purée, cohered by means of a little forcemeat.
- When the mold is lined, coat it inside with a layer of chicken forcemeat combined with truffle purée.
- Put the mold for a few minutes in a moderate oven, that the forcemeat may poach.
- Reduce one-third pint of Béchamel sauce, combined with four to five tablespoonfuls of truffle and chicken essence, to half; mix therewith one-half lb. of poached macaroni, cut into lengths of one inch, and four tablespoonfuls of foie-gras and
- truffle purée, made from trimmings. Mix the whole thoroughly.
- Garnish the timbale with this macaroni, spreading it in layers, separated by other alternate layers of foie-gras collops, poached in Madeira, and slices of truffle.
- Cover the garnish with a layer of forcemeat, and poach in the bain-marie, allowing forty-five minutes for a quart-mold.
- Let the mold stand for a few minutes before emptying it; turn' out the timbale upon a round dish; surround it with a border of Périgueux sauce and serve a sauceboat of Périgueux sauce separately.
TIMBALE DE FOIE GRAS MONTESQUIEU
- Spread a very even layer, one-third inch thick, of chicken forcemeat upon a sheet of buttered paper.
- Moisten the surface with some white of egg; sprinkle with chopped truffle, and press on the latter by means of the flat of a knife.
- Set to poach gently; cool, and then stamp out with a round, even cutter, one inch in diameter. With the resulting roundels, garnish the bottom and sides of a Charlotte mold, placing their truffled sides against the mold.
- Then, with the view of binding these roundels together, as they are to constitute the outside of the timbale, coat the whole of the mold inside with some firm chicken forcemeat, combined with a quarter of its bulk of foie-gras purée.
- Fill the mold with a foie-gras Parfait with truffles cut into very large dice and cohered by means of mousseline chicken forcemeat.
- Cover the whole with a layer of the same forcemeat as that used for the purpose of binding the roundels and set to poach under cover.
- Turn out, following the same precautions as above; surround the timbale with a border of nice, pink, Hungarian sauce with paprika, and send a sauceboat of this sauce to the table at the same time.
TIMBALE DE FOIE GRAS TZARINE
- Line a timbale-mold with ordinary patty paste and cover the inside all over with slices of larding bacon.
- Just in the middle set a fresh foie gras, seasoned with salt, pepper, and allspice; surround it with quails stuffed with a piece of truffle, and set upright with their breasts against the slices of bacon.
- Fill up the mold with whole, raw, and peeled truffles; cover the whole with a round slice of the same bacon; cover the timbale with a layer of paste, well-sealed down round the edges; make a slit in the top for the escape of steam, and bake in a good, moderate oven for one and one-quarter hours.
- On withdrawing the timbale from the oven, pour into it some succulent veal stock, flavored with Madeira, and sufficiently gelatinous to form a nice jelly.
- Keep the timbale in the cool for one or two days before serving it.