Apples - Dishes, Recipes, Definitions, and Varieties
In spraying large trees, a tower from 5 to 7 feet high should always be attached to the top of the spray tank or to the wagon, so that the sprayer can stand on this and direct the spray downwards into the tree. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19c98190a6
Apples—About twelve really good kinds of apples are obtainable by the steward, for hotel purposes—Pound sweets, King, Baldwins, Spitzenbergs, Northern spy, Rhode Island greenings, Golden Pippins, Johnathans, Wine saps, Snow, Shiawasse beauty, Roxbury russets, Wageners. There are others, but these are among the first rank.
APPLE BAVAROISE—Apple sauce, flavored with sherry wine and lemon juice, with enough gelatine added to set it, the whole passed through a hair sieve, whipped cream stirred in according to quantity liked, then poured into molds and allowed to set till firm; served with whipped cream.
APPLE BUTTER—Peeled apples boiled down in cider to a pulp with a flavor of allspice, the pulp then passed through a fine strainer.
Baked Apples—Good firm apples cored, the core hole filled with a mixture of butter and sugar flavored with nutmeg, then placed into a pan containing a little water, and baked till done.
APPLE CAKE—Apple sauce and an equal quan-tity of batter of the consistency of cream, made of flour, milk, eggs and sugar, mixed together and baked slowly till done; when nearly done, the top dusted with sugar, returned to oven to get a glazed appearance.
APPLE CHEESECAKES — Patty pans lined with puff paste, filled with apple marmalade containing a little grated lemon rind and enough yolks of eggs to set.
APPLE CHARLOTTE—The bottom and sides of a pan or mold lined with thin slices of buttered bread, the interior filled with thick apple marmalade, the top covered with slices of buttered bread half an inch thick dipped in a mixture of milk and eggs, the charlotte then baked a fine color, turned ont and served with whipped cream.
APPLE CHUTNEY—A pint and a half of vinegar, two ounces of whole ginger bruised, one ounce of chillies, one ounce of mustard seed, two ounces of salt, twelve ounces of sugar, boiled slowly for forty-five minutes, then strained through a hair sieve; when cooled the vinegar thus flavored put on again with a large onion minced, one and one-half ounces of minced shallots, two ounces of sultana raisins, and two and one-half pounds of peeled and sliced apples, the whole boiled till apples are pulpy, then placed into stone jars and tied down with skin.
APPLE CREAM—Sweet apple sauce, containing a little butter and whipped whites of egg.
APPLE CROQUETTES—Thick apple marmalade containing soft breadcrumbs and egg yolks baked till set. When cold, cut in strips two inches long and one inch thick, breaded, fried, and served with orange sauce.
APPLE CUSTARD—Apple marmalade mixed with beaten eggs and cream, poured into a pan or dish, and baked till set.
APPLE DUMPLINGS—Cored and peeled apples enclosed in pie paste, baked, boiled or steamed till done, served with a sauce or with Cream.
APPLE FLOAT—Cream sweetened and flavored with nutmeg poured in a dish or pan; apple marmalade containing whipped whites of egg, poured in the centre; baked till set.
APPLE FRITTERS—Slices of cored apples, dipped in batter and fried till done; served with a syrup or wine sauce.
APPLE PIE—Thin slices of apples, sweetened and spiced, enclosed between an upper and lower crust of pie paste; baked till done.
APPLE ICE—Apple marmalade flavored with orange juice, thinned with water, sweetened to taste, poured into a freezer and froze.
APPLE CUSTARD PIE—A pie dish lined with puff paste, filled with apple marmalade mixed with cream and yolks of eggs; baked till set.
APPLE CUSTARD FRITTERS—Apple marmalade mixed with custard, baked till set; when cooled, cut in slices, breaded, fried and served with a sauce.
APPLES, PORTUGESE STYLE—Firm apples cored, peeled and simmered in a thin syrup till barely done, taken out, drained, the core hole filled with apricot jam, placed on a dish, the syrup then reduced to a glaze, and poured over them.
APPLE MERINGUE—Apple pulp in a dish, a layer of fruit marmalade spread on it, whipped whites of egg and sugar, tastefully spread over all, then placed in oven till of a light fawn color.
APPLE TART—A pie plate lined with puff paste with a raised fancy edge to it; filled two-thirds full with apple marmalade and baked; when done, filled up with a boiled custard, the interior edge piped round with meringue, also a fancy centre; returned to oven till of a fawn color.
APPLE SOUP—Minced cooking apples, grated breadcrumbs, and water each one part, a piece of lemon rind and a flavoring of cinnamon, boiled till thoroughly done, the whole then passed through a fine strainer, and enough white wine added to form a soup consistency.
APPLE PANCAKES--Minced apples worked into an ordinary wheat pancake mixture, the pancakes baked in the usual way, and served with butter and sugar.
APPLE SHORTCAKE—Two layers of cooked shortpaste spread between with apple marmalade, the top ornamented with whipped cream; served with sweetened and flavored cream.
APPLE COMPOTE—Cored and pared apples simmered in a boiling syrup till thoroughly done, remaining whole.
APPLE ROLY POLY—A biscuit dough containing a little sugar, rolled out thin, spread with minced apples, seasoned with grated lemon rind, cinnamon, or ground cloves according to taste, rolled up, the ends tucked in, tied in a cloth for boiling (in a mold for steaming) (in a pan for baking); served with a sauce, or with sweetened cream.
Fried Apples—Good firm apples, peeled, cored, cut in slices half an inch thick, then dipped in milk, rolled in flour, and fried in very hot lard.
APPLE JOHNNY CAKE—Slices of peeled and cored apples in a buttered baking dish, sweetened and flavored, a pancake batter poured over them; baked till done and served with or without currant jelly.
APPLE MARMALADE—Sweetened apple sauce boiled down till thick enough to cling to a spoon.
APPLE PUDDING—Basins or molds lined with a suet crust, filled with slices of apples, sweetened and flavored to taste, top crust put on, the basin tied over with a cloth, or mold cover placed on and tied, boiled rapidly till done.
APPLE PUFFS—Minced apples fried a little so as not to break, flavored with cinnamon and sugar, placed on squares of puff paste, the edges brought to a top centre and pinched together, brushed over with beaten egg and baked.
APPLE COBBLER—A pan one and a half inches deep lined with a pie paste, filled with apple marmalade, top crust put on, baked and glazed, served with sweetened and flavored cream, or with whipped cream.
APPLE TIMBALE—A timbale mold lined with strips of short paste, filled with apple marmalade, covered with a crust, baked or steamed till paste is set, turned out, served with apricot sauce, and garnished with preserved cherries.
Glazed Apples—Cored and peeled apples of an even size simmered in lemon syrup till just done, taken out, placed on a dish, the syrup reduced till thick, then poured over the apples; when cooled, decorated with angelica and cherries.
APPLE FLORENTINE—Apples cored and simmered till half done, in syrup, taken out, drained, the core hole filled with sweeten rice, the outside coated with a vanilla flavor chestnut Purée; made hot again in oven an served with a sprinkling of chopped pistachi nuts.
VARIETIES OF APPLES
TERMS USED IN DESCRIBING VARIETIES
1. Terms Applying to Tree. In describing any variety of apple, it is necessary to say something about the kind of tree on which the fruit is produced. The trees of different varieties vary considerably in size, vigor, form, type of twig produced, and habit of bearing. Still, those of any particular variety is very uniform in these respects.
In size, the trees of a variety may be habitually large, like those of the Northern Spy, or small, like those of the Oldenburg. They may be characteristically vigorous, or they may tend to be weak. In form, the trees of a variety may be habitually spreading or habitually upright; the trees of many types tend to be upright, however, until loads of fruit cause them to be spreading; on the other hand, the trees of some varieties have the upright habit so firmly fixed that even after many years of bearing they remain upright.
In some varieties, the twigs are exceedingly slender, and in the case of other varieties, they are strong and stocky; there are many gradations between these conditions. The trees of some varieties are uniformly heavy bearers; those of other varieties tend to bear heavily on alternate years; those of still other varieties are light-bearers.
The location has considerable influence on the bearing habit of a variety. The descriptions that follow the trees of each variety will be discussed with reference to the section to which that variety is best adapted.
2. Terms Applying to Fruit. Among the terms used in describing the fruit of a variety are size; form; the color of skin; the color, texture, flavor, and quality of the flesh; the shape of the cavity; and the structure of the basin.
Size in fruit is expressed in terms of very large, large, above medium, medium, below medium, small, and very small. These terms are, of course, relative; consequently, they are incapable of being defined. The Wolf River is an example of a very large apple. Baldwin and Jonathan are examples of medium-sized apples.
Fig. 1: Size in fruit is expressed in terms of very large, large, above medium, medium, below medium, small, and very small. These terms are, of course , relative. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19c984583d
In describing the form of an apple, the terms round, oblate, conical, ovate, oblong, truncate, and oblique is used to reference the appearance when the apple is held with the vertical axis perpendicular to the line of sight. A round apple appears roundish, as shown in Fig. 1. An oblate apple is slightly flattened, as shown at b.
A conical apple narrows considerably toward the blossom end, as shown at c; if the apple is round, as shown in the illustration, it may be designated as a round conic to distinguish it from other forms of conical apples. An ovate apple is egg-shaped, that is, one contracted toward both the stem and the blossom ends, as shown at d.
At e is shown an oval apple conic toward the blossom end; this form is known as oblong conic. An oblong apple is one in which the length from the stem end to the blossom end is greater than the transverse diameter. A truncate apple is abruptly flattened at the end, as shown at f. An oblique apple is one in which the vertical axis slants obliquely, as shown at g.
The terms regular and irregular describe the form when the apple is viewed at right angles to the transverse diameter. If the form is nearly circular, the apple is ordinary; if it is elliptical or angular, it is irregular.
The color of the apples of a particular variety will vary with the conditions under which the fruit was grown. However, the fruit of a given variety usually has specific characteristics of color that distinguish the type from others. In describing the color of an apple, a distinction is generally made between what is known as the under color and the over color.
The under color of an apple is the ground, or basic, color; it is often a yellow or pale green. The over color is the color that, in some varieties, is spread over the under color in the form of blushes, stripes, or splashes; it is usually some shade of red. The term blush indicates that the surface is overspread with a reddish tint that is not much broken.
The color of apples is also affected by dots found on the skin. These dots may be prominent or submerged. They may stand out, conspicuously, or barely perceptible; they may be white, gray, or russet. If the dots are star-shaped, they are said to be stellate; if they shade from one color in the center to another on the outside, they are known as areolar.
The color of the flesh is another distinctive variety characteristic. The flesh may be white, as in the McIntosh and the Fameuse; it may be tinged with yellow, as in the Jonathan and the Baldwin; or greenish-white, as in the Rambo. In a few varieties, the flesh is streaked with red, as in the Wealthy.
The texture of the flesh of apples varies considerably, being fine-grained or coarse-grained and firm or soft. In addition, the flesh may be juicy, as in the Jonathan, or it may lack in juiciness, as in the Ben Davis.
In flavor, the flesh of apples may be acid, as in the case of the Red Astrachan; subacid, as in the case of the Jonathan; or sweet, which means that the acid is almost entirely wanting.
In describing the quality of the flesh, the terms poor, fair, good, very good, excellent, and best are employed. As used by horticulturists, however, these terms designate qualities higher than would generally be understood by the layman. For example, an apple described as good is one of only medium quality.
The cavity, that is, the depression around the stem, differs somewhat in different varieties of apples. If the angle formed is broad, as shown at Fig. 2, the cavity is said to be obtuse; if the rise is sharp, as shown at b, the cavity is said to be acuminate; if the angle is intermediate, as shown at c, the cavity is said to be acute. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19c9c6fe88
The terms wide, medium, and narrow referring to the spread, or width, of the cavity, and deep, medium, and shallow, referring to the depth, also are used. At d is shown a wide cavity; at e, a medium-wide cavity; at f, a narrow cavity; at g, a deep cavity; at h, a medium-deep cavity; and at I a shallow cavity.
The form of the basin, or the depression at the blossom end of an apple, is also a variety characteristic. The basin may be shallow, medium-deep, or deep; it may be narrow, medium wide, or wide. The basin whose sides show a sudden slope, as illustrated at j, Fig. 2, is termed abrupt; if the sides slope gradually, as shown at k, the basin is said to be obtuse.
DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES
3. A great many varieties of apples are offered to the country's fruit growers by nurserymen. To describe all of these would be neither possible nor advisable for the present purpose. The varieties described in the following pages are important ones that every orchardist should know.
The specimens from which the illustrations were made were collected from different regions. Although each is relatively characteristic of the variety to which it belongs, it should be remembered that the same type may assume somewhat different characteristics when grown in different sections. In other words, varieties of apples are susceptible to change in the environment.
4. Yellow Transparent. The Yellow Transparent is a variety of Russian origin that was introduced into this country in 1870. It is now grown commercially in many sections and is a good variety for home orchards. Instead, the tree is a slow grower and in some parts of the West suffers considerably from twig blight, a disease described in another Section.
The tree bears at an early age; often, 2- or 3-year-old trees will set much fruit. The fruit, when mature, is above medium in size and of a beautiful, clear, yellowish-white color. The flesh is white, juicy, and of a pleasant flavor.
The skin is somewhat tender, and for this reason, the fruit must be picked almost every day during the ripening season to reach the market in good condition. In New York, the apples begin to ripen in July and continue to be in season until the last of August or early in September.
5. Red June. The Red June variety has been in cultivation for a long time and is widely distributed. The tree is reasonably vigorous, upright, and relatively dense. It is productive but does not come into bearing at an early age. The fruit is small to medium in size; when it is well colored, almost the entire surface is a deep red. The flesh is tender and juicy, and the quality is good to very good.
Like the Yellow Transparent, this apple is somewhat tender in the skin and must be handled carefully. In Virginia, it ripens in late June or early July; in New York, the season is from late July to early winter.
6. Early Harvest. The Early Harvest is one of the oldest and most widely disseminated varieties of summer apples in America. The tree is vigorous and healthy and comes into bearing relatively young. The fruit is medium in size, pale yellow in color, pleasant in flavor, and outstanding quality.
The fruit faults being irregular in size and shape, and there are many poor, knotty specimens so that in general, the variety is hard to be recommended for commercial planting. However, it is desirable for a home orchard. In Virginia, the Early Harvest apple ripens about the last of June; in New York, the season is from late July to August.
7. Red Astrachan. The Red Astrachan is a widely known summer variety. The tree is medium size and relatively vigorous, although it is not very productive in some sections. The fruit is medium to large; the under color is greenish or greenish-yellow, and the over color, which nearly covers the apple, is deep crimson, either shaded or in splashes.
The fruit is a little too sour for dessert purposes but is excellent for cooking. The apples mature unevenly, and several pickings are necessary. In addition, they are very perishable and consequently not well suited for long-distance shipment; the fruit is generally sold locally. In Virginia, the Red Astrachan ripens early in July; in New York, the season is from late July to September.
8. Oldenburg. The Oldenburg, or Duchess of Oldenburg, is a Russian variety adapted to a cool climate. It is widely disseminated and is considered to be one of the most important of summer apples. The tree is a relatively slow grower and medium in size but comes into bearing young and bears well in most localities. The fruit is medium to large and roundish to oblate in form.
The under color, which is yellowish, is almost wholly covered with irregular splashes and stripes of red shaded with crimson. The fruit is somewhat too acid for dessert use but is especially good for cooking purposes.
The Oldenburg is a valuable commercial apple, as it stands shipment reasonably well and is generally in demand on the market. In Virginia, the fruit ripens about the last of July; in New York, the season is from late August to September.
9. Benoni. The Benoni is an old Massachusetts variety of apples. The tree is a medium grower but comes into bearing relatively young and bears pretty well. When the tree begins to get old, it tends to bear crops in alternate years rather than each year. This fault can be corrected, however, by good cultivation and heavy pruning.
The fruit is excellent in quality but is commonly grown is relatively too small to be of general market value. With heavy pruning and good care, however, the Benoni is a valuable market apple. The color is yellowish, over splashed with red, and striped with crimson. Although the ripening season of the fruit is rather long, the entire crop can, as a rule, be harvested in two pickings.
The young fruit is resistant to severe cold, and for this reason, the variety bears in some sections where most others are killed by frost. The Benoni seems exceptionally well adapted to the Ozark section of Missouri. In New York, the fruit begins to ripen about the first of August and the season extends into September.
10. Maiden Blush. The Maiden Blush is one of the best-known summer apples. The tree is vigorous and hardy and comes into bearing relatively early. The fruit is above medium in size; the color is a pale yellow with a crimson blush on one side; the quality is pretty good.
The apple is suitable for both dessert and cooking purposes and is a standard market variety. The Maiden Blush is desirable for either commercial or home orchards. In Virginia, the fruit ripens late in July or early August; in New York, the season is from July to September.
11. Gravenstein. The Gravenstein is a summer variety that is pretty well known in most sections. The tree is a strong, vigorous, spreading grower, and under proper culture, it produces crops nearly every year. However, under ordinary culture, it tends to produce only in alternate years.
The fruit is medium to large; the form is roundish oblate; and the color is yellowish, striped, and splashed with red; the flesh is yellowish and firm, and the quality is outstanding. In Virginia, the Gravenstein ripens in early August; in New Jersey, the fruit may remain on the trees until September; in New York, the season is from late September to early November.
FALL AND WINTER VARIETIES
12. Fall Pippin. The Fall Pippin is a desirable fall apple that is grown commercially in some parts of the East. The trees attain a large size, are moderately vigorous, are strong growers, and live for many years. The fruit is large, and when ripe, is of attractive yellow color. The flesh is tender and good in quality, being prized for both dessert and culinary purposes.
The crop ripens unevenly, the first apples often being ready in September and the last not until a few weeks later. The fruit and foliage are very susceptible to apple scab, and for this reason, good orchard treatment is necessary when the variety is grown. Coming as they do in the fall before winter apples, and being of good quality, the apples are generally in demand.
The variety is very desirable for home orchards as well as for commercial orchards. The fruit ripens very unevenly; one can keep it in ordinary storage until December and in cold storage until January or February.
13. Sops of Wine. The Sops of Wine variety is grown to some extent in home orchards. The tree is medium in size and rather vigorous. The fruit is medium to large and of roundish form.
The skin, slightly roughened, is a greenish-yellow in color, almost entirely overspread with purplish red, mottled, irregularly splashed, and sometimes indistinctly striped with dark carmine; the skin is overspread with thin white bloom. The flesh is yellowish, often stained with pink; it is aromatic, juicy, and of good quality in flavor. The season of the Sops of Wine apple is from August to October.
14. Alexander. In some sections, the Alexander is a fall, or in some areas, a late summer, grown commercially in many apple-growing regions. The tree is a vigorous grower and comes into bearing at an early age. The fruit is round conic or oblate conic, very large in size but coarse in texture and only fair in quality; it is better suited for cooking than for dessert purposes.
However, the apples are beautiful in appearance, greenish-yellow or pale orange, and overlaid with stripes and splashes of bright red. The fruit usually brings a reasonable price on the market. In Virginia, the season begins early in July; in New York, it continues until September or November.
15. Wolf River. The Wolf River apple is similar in many respects to the Alexander; in fact, it is supposed by some authorities to be a seedling of the latter. The tree is relatively vigorous, attains a large size, spreads in habit, and comes into bearing relatively late.
The fruit is large, broad, flat at the base, round, and slightly conic. In color, the fruit is yellowish or greenish, mottled and blushed with deep red, and splashed and striped with bright carmine; the surface is covered with numerous large to medium-sized areolar pale or russet dots. The basin is usually deep, narrow, abrupt, and somewhat smooth. The cavity is acuminate, relatively deep and wide, and heavily russeted.
Fig. 3 shows a Wolf River apple that was grown in Northwestern Pennsylvania. The flesh is yellowish, somewhat coarse, juicy, but only fair to good in quality. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19c9fac054
Mainly on account of the high color and large size, the apples are in demand on the market. As a commercial variety of late summer apples, especially in the Western fruit-growing regions, the Wolf River is more widely grown than the Alexander.
Recently, numerous commercial orchards of the variety have been planted in the East. In New York and Pennsylvania, the Wolf River ripens in September, but one may keep the apples until December in cellar storage or until January in cold storage.
16. Wealthy. The Wealthy is a vital fall apple that is extensively grown in the Central States and to some extent in the Eastern States. The tree is hardy and a thrifty grower when young, but it becomes a relatively slow grower with maturity. The fruit is medium to large, roundish oblate, fairly uniform in shape, and of excellent quality.
The under color is yellow or greenish, heavily overlaid with stripes of red and marked with numerous small inconspicuous pale or russet dots. The flesh is white, sometimes tinged with red. The quality is outstanding, and the fruit is desirable both for dessert and for cooking.
In New York, the fruit begins to ripen about the last of September or the first of October; it can be kept in ordinary storage until about the first of November and in cold storage until the middle of January or later. As a commercial variety, the Wealthy has proved profitable in many sections.
17. Twenty Ounce. The Twenty Ounce variety, also known as the Cayuga Redstreak, the Il'ine Apple, and the Limbertwig, seems to do particularly well in favorable locations in the apple-growing belt south of Lake Ontario. It is highly esteemed for home orchard planting. The tree is upright, moderately vigorous, and dense.
The fruit is very large and is usually roundish or roundish conic in form, sometimes broadly ribbed. The skin is thick and tough; in color, it is greenish at first but gradually becomes somewhat yellow, washed, mottled, and splashed with bright red, and striped with carmine.
The flesh is whitish, somewhat tinged with yellow, coarse, moderately tender, and juicy. The fruit is good for culinary use but only second rate for dessert. The season is from late September to early winter.
18. Fameuse. The Fameuse, an old variety, is decidedly a northern apple, one of the most important commercial varieties in the Champlain district in New York and Southern Canada; it is extensively grown in Wisconsin and Minnesota.
The tree is of medium size and is a moderate grower, reasonably healthy, and long-lived; however, trees of this variety are, unless well sprayed, likely to be seriously injured by apple scab.
The fruit is beautiful in appearance and excellent in flavor; it is very desirable for dessert purposes and usually sells at prices above the average for apples, being in strong demand for the Christmas trade. The fruit is about medium in size; in form, it is roundish and somewhat conic. The skin is of a light, bright-red color that deepens to purplish-black in the best-colored specimens, with a striped appearance toward the apex.
The quality is excellent. The flesh is white and often streaked or tinged with red. In New York, the season of the Fameuse is from October to midwinter.
19. McIntosh. The McIntosh apple is similar to the Fameuse but is adapted to a broader range of climatic conditions. According to the region where it is grown, in some localities, it is considered a slow grower and not very productive; in other localities, it is regarded as a vigorous grower to be hardy and productive.
It comes into bearing reasonably early and, as a rule, yields good crops. The fruit is medium to large; roundish to oblate in form; whitish-yellow or greenish deeply blushed with bright red and striped with carmine; ripe, highly colored specimens become a dark, purplish-red. The flesh of this apple is white or slightly yellowish and, like that of the Fameuse, is often tinged with red.
The quality is outstanding, and the fruit is highly prized for dessert purposes. In New York, the McIntosh ripens during the last of September and can be kept until about the last of October in ordinary storage or until about January in cold storage.
The McIntosh lacks sufficient firmness to stand much handling and consequently is more often sold locally than otherwise. However, in the Bitter Root Valley of Montana and other high sections of the West, the variety is grown rather extensively, and the fruit is shipped long distances to market.
20. Hubbardston. The Hubbardston is a desirable apple that ripens between the fall and late winter apples. It is grown commercially in parts of New York and Northern Pennsylvania, and in most cases, has proved to be a profitable variety.
The tree is vigorous and generally of good size but tends to overbear; unless it is carefully pruned and otherwise cared for, it is likely to be only moderately vigorous and medium-sized. The tree is susceptible to apple canker, and for this reason, it is well to top work the variety on some such variety as the Northern Spy.
The fruit is medium to large and generally roundish ovate. The skin is either smooth or roughened with dots, flecks, or veins of russet. The color is yellowish or greenish, blushed and mottled with red, varying from a dull brownish red to a bright, clear red. Large, regular dots are conspicuous on the surface, especially on the red portions of the fruit. The overall effect of a well-colored specimen is red mingled with yellow or green.
In Fig. 4, a Well-colored Hubbardston Apple Is Shown at the Top of the Page; This Apple Was Grown in Northern Pennsylvania. The Apple at the Bottom of the Page Is a Pumpkin Sweet Grown in Western New York. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19c9fe3868
In Fig. 4, a well-colored Hubbardston apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was grown in Northern Pennsylvania. The flesh of the Hubbardston is whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, and the quality is very good to best. The season is from October to January.
21. Pumpkin Sweet. The Pumpkin Sweet, often known as the Pound Sweet, is an early-winter variety well-known in New England, New York, and Northern Pennsylvania. By many, it is esteemed as one of the best sweet apples for baking, but generally, it is not valued for dessert because it is relatively coarse and has a peculiar flavor.
The fruit is sold in local and unique markets and has limited demand in the general market. The tree is medium in size, is rather vigorous, and tends to be upright inhabited. The fruit is large to very large; the form is rounded to roundish conic; and the skin is relatively thin, tough, and smooth.
In color, the skin is green, eventually becoming clear yellow, marbled with greenish-yellow stripes of white scarf skin radiating from the cavity. In Fig. 4, the apple at the bottom of the page is a Pumpkin Sweet grown in Western New York.
The flesh of the Pumpkin Sweet is tinged with yellow and is firm and medium in texture; the quality is good. The season of this variety extends from October to January. The Pumpkin Sweet is grown commercially only to a limited extent but is often found in home orchards.
22. Northern Spy. The Northern Spy, more commonly known perhaps as the Spy, is a widely known winter variety of apple grown commercially and in home orchards in about the same localities that produce Baldwins and Rhode Island Greenings. The tree is large, vigorous, and upright but is a slow grower and comes into bearing relatively late.
When mature, however, the trees are good yielders. The fruit is usually large to very large and generally roundish conic in form. In the case of well-matured specimens, the under color is a clear pale yellow, nearly concealed by a pinkish-red splashed with carmine.
The overall color effect is red or reddish striped. In underripe apples, the yellow color may predominate, but such fruit is often of inferior quality.
Fig. 5 a Spy Is Shown at the Top of the Page; This Apple Was Grown in Pennsylvania. The Lower Apple Is a Pennsylvania-grown King of Excellent Color. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ca003499
Among the disadvantages of the Spy for commercial planting are its slow maturity and the fact that it is not a reliable cropper in some seasons. However, to offset these disadvantages are the facts that the Spy is well and favorably known on the market and can generally be depended on to bring a reasonable price.
The season is somewhat shorter than that of the Baldwin or Greening, as the fruit, particularly if bruised, is susceptible to rotting in storage. Usually, in ordinary storage, one cannot keep the apples much later than February or March, and in cold storage, they are likely to deteriorate if left longer than March.
23. Tompkins King. The Tompkins King, or King, one of the highest quality apples produced, is grown in the same region as the Baldwin, the Northern Spy, and the Greening. The tree is rather vigorous but is seriously subject to injury from sun scald, canker, and an injury that occurs to the trunk near the ground's surface, which is generally spoken of as collar rot.
The lateral branches are relatively slender and somewhat drooping. The fruit is large to very large and roundish to somewhat oblate, sometimes inclined to conic. The skin is smooth or, in some cases is roughened with russet dots.
The color is yellow, mottled, and washed with orange-red that often shades to deep red and striped and splashed with bright carmine. Numerous white or russet dots are conspicuous on the surface.
In Fig. 5, the lower apple is a Pennsylvania-grown King of excellent color. The dominant color is an attractive red with a small amount of yellow. The flesh of the King is a rich yellow in color, tender, aromatic, and juicy; in quality, it is very good to best. The King does not keep well in late storage; in ordinary storage, its limit is December or January; in cold storage, about February. It is probably at its best about Christmas.
The King is much in demand on most markets and sells for reasonable prices. It is lovely in appearance, and being of excellent quality, is well adapted for fancy trade. However, the fact that the trees are so subject to disease makes the planting of the variety commercially a questionable practice.
Some orchardists have found that by top working the King on some variety that is less susceptible to collar rot, one can obtain better results than growing the trees on their own stocks.
24. Yellow Bellflower. The Yellow Bellflower is one of the oldest of American varieties. The tree is large in size, vigorous, a good grower, and relatively hardy but often does not produce good crops. The fruit is variable in size and roundish oblong in form. The skin is thin and smooth. In color, the fruit is a pale lemon yellow, often becoming brownish yellow where exposed to the sun.
The apples are beautiful and are excellent both for dessert and for cooking purposes. The flesh is white, tending slightly toward yellowish; the quality is good. By some, the flesh is thought to be somewhat too acid early in the season. The season for this variety is about the same as that of Tompkins King, the cold-storage limit being about January.
The Yellow Bellflower is grown extensively in home orchards, but on account of the tendency of the trees to bear poorly, it is not grown on an immense scale in commercial orchards.
25. Ortley. The Ortley is a pale-yellow apple of the Yellow Bellflower type that has long been under cultivation. The tree is moderately vigorous, medium in size, and roundish or spreading in form. The fruit is large or medium in size and oblong conic varying to roundish conic in shape.
The skin is moderately thin, smooth, waxy, and of a pale whitish-yellow color, varying to rich yellow in well-developed fruit. The flesh is whitish, tinged with yellow, crisp, juicy, and of good flavor. The season of the fruit is from October to February. The Ortley is severely subject to attacks of various insects and the scab fungus and requires thorough treatment to protect it from these troubles.
26. Jacobs Sweet. The Jacobs Sweet variety has about the same season and is grown in about the same localities as the Tompkins King. It has considerable merit as a home orchard variety, but it is not particularly desirable for commercial planting. The tree is vigorous, attains good size, comes into bearing young, and, as a rule, yields crops annually.
The fruit is large to very large and is of roundish form inclined to conic, sometimes slightly oblate. The apple's skin is tough, somewhat waxy, and glossy, and in color is clear yellow or greenish, often with a blush of red.
Fig. 6 Shows a Jacobs Sweet Apple That Was Grown in Northern Pennsylvania. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ca4cb8d5
The flesh of the Jacobs Sweet is whitish, tinged with yellow, juicy, and very sweet. The quality is good, the apples being especially desirable for baking. In New York, the season is from October to March or April.
27. Blue Pearmain. The Blue Pearmain is an old variety that people extensively planted in home orchards in the East. It is rarely grown in commercial orchards. The tree is relatively large, spreading, and moderately vigorous. The fruit is above medium to large; it is roundishly inclined to oblate in form.
The rough skin is yellow, washed, and mottled with red, often deepening on one side to nearly solid red, splashed and striped with deep purplish carmine, and overspread with an abundant blue bloom the variety derives its name.
The flesh is yellowish, relatively coarse, decidedly aromatic, and of good quality. The season of the Blue Pearmain is from about October to March; often, however, the apples begin to wilt if kept longer than January.
28. Banana. The Banana, or Winter Banana, variety is grown commercially in some sections of the Northwest. It does pretty well also in parts of the eastern and central apple-growing regions. The tree is medium in size, vigorous, and a fair grower; it comes into bearing early and yields moderate crops, being, in most cases, an annual bearer.
The fruit is medium to large and roundish conic to oblong conic in form, often oblate and flat at the base. The skin is smooth, moderately thick, tough, and waxy. In color, the apples are a bright pale yellow with a dark pinkish blush.
In Fig. 7, a Banana Apple Is Shown at the Top of the Page; This Apple Was Grown in Pennsylvania. The Baldwin Apple Is Shown on the Bottom Image. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ca55a776
The apples, being yellow, show bruises readily. The flesh is whitish, tinged with yellow, moderately firm, tender, and juicy; the quality is good to very good. The apples are better for dessert than for cooking, being too mild in flavor for the latter purpose.
They command a reasonable price on the market, being of an attractive appearance and good dessert quality. They will keep in cold storage until about March, but as they show bruises readily, it is generally desirable to market them earlier in the season.
29. Baldwin. The Baldwin is by far the most crucial commercial winter apple grown in America. It is grown extensively in New York, Pennsylvania, New England, parts of Northern Ohio, Southern Canada, Michigan, and some of the high mountain sections of Virginia and West Virginia. The Baldwin is a standard fruit in both American and foreign markets and is one of the principal varieties handled in cold storage.
In sections where the Baldwin is specially adapted, the tree is a strong grower, long-lived, and vigorous. However, the tree is somewhat slow in coming into bearing, but when it reaches maturity, it bears exceedingly abundantly. As generally grown, the tree bears biennially rather than annually.
The fruit, if grown correctly, is usually above medium in size and is relatively uniform; in the form, it is roundish, inclined to conic, or sometimes roundish oblong. The cavity is acute and medium to rather deep; the calyx is small to rather large; the basin is abrupt and varies in different specimens from narrow to moderate in width.
The skin is tough and smooth; the color is a light yellow or green, blushed and mottled with bright red and striped rather indistinctly with carmine. The overall color effect is red, as shown in Fig. 7, which shows a Pennsylvania-grown Baldwin apple at the bottom of the page. Whitish or grayish dots are conspicuous, as a rule, being somewhat numerous and smaller toward the basin than toward the cavity.
The flesh is yellowish in color, moderately coarse in texture, and the quality is good to very good; the fruit is suitable for both dessert and cooking purposes. In New York, the season extends from November to March in ordinary storage or to May or June in cold storage.
Among the advantages of the Baldwin as a commercial apple are:
- Its good quality.
- Its red color.
- Good shipping qualities.
- Good keeping qualities in cold storage.
- The fact that consumers know it well.
These qualities make it in demand on the market.
A disadvantage of the variety is that it is likely to be troubled with Baldwin spot, a disease that manifests itself in small brown flecks in the fruit's flesh. This disease is a physiological one, and no remedy is known. Other disadvantages of the Baldwin are that it tends to be a biennial bearer and that unless it has proper culture, the apples are likely to be small in size.
30. Smokehouse. The Smokehouse is an early-winter variety grown rather extensively in Southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. The tree is vigorous, healthy, and hardy; it comes into bearing relatively young and is a good yielder, usually producing crops annually. The trees are likely to form dense heads. For this reason, it should be kept well pruned to ensure highly colored fruit.
The fruit is medium to large and generally roundish oblate in form; sometimes, however, it approaches oblate conic. The skin is thin and tough and smooth or slightly roughened with russet lines and russet dots. The color is yellow or greenish, mottled with rather dull red, sometimes deepening to solid bright red, indistinctly mottled, striped, and splashed with carmine.
Fig. 8 Shows a Smokehouse Apple That Was Grown in Maryland. the Flesh Is Lightly Tinged with Yellow and Is Firm, Crisp, and Juicy; the Quality Is Good. the Smokehouse Is Especially Prized for Dessert. Its Season Is from October to February in Storage. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID #
31. Black Gilliflower. The Black Gilliflower apple is well known in the markets of America. The tree is medium in size, a vigorous grower, and generally a reliable cropper. The fruit is medium in size and very characteristic in form, being long ovate to oblong conic. The skin is thick, tough, and smooth. The color is yellowish or greenish, generally covered with red, which becomes a dull purple in highly colored specimens.
Fig. 9 shows a Black Gilliflower apple. The flesh is whitish or yellowish and becomes mellow on standing. The Black Gilliflower seems to be in considerable demand in southern markets. It is grown commercially to some extent, mainly because it is a well-known variety that will bring fair prices on the market. The season is from October to January or February. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID #
32. Missouri. The Missouri, or Missouri Pippin, is a well-known market apple of the Middle West, especially Missouri, Kansas, and Illinois. The tree is moderately vigorous, irregular in outline, and relatively short-lived; in the Mississippi Valley, the trees usually do not live more than 20 years. However, the trees come into bearing young, and for this reason, they are much used for fillers in commercial orchards.
The fruit is medium to small in size and roundish inclined to conic in form. The skin is thick, tough, smooth, glossy, and thinly coated with a grayish bloom. The color is a pale green overspread with bright red and striped with purplish red. Highly colored specimens are almost solid red, except for conspicuous russet or pale-gray dots.
A Missouri Apple Is Illustrated in Fig. 10. The Flesh Is Yellowish or Greenish, Firm, Medium to Relatively Fine-grained, Rather Tough, and Not Very Juicy. The Quality Is Fair to Good. The Season in Common Storage Extends to January and in Cold Storage to about April. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ca7100a0
33. Rambo. The Rambo is a northern apple that has been under cultivation in America for a long time. Its origin is unknown. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous and susceptible to winter killing. The wood is brittle, and for this reason, the branches are easily broken. The fruit is medium in size and roundish or somewhat oblate in form.
Fig. 11 Shows a Rambo That Was Grown in Southern New York. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ca9c47fc
The skin is thin and rather tough; it is a pale greenish-yellow, mottled with red and striped with carmine in color. The dominant color is red with contrasting yellow. The flesh is white, tinged with yellow or green; it is juicy, relatively fine-grained, and good to outstanding quality, particularly for dessert.
The variety is recommended for home orchard planting, but it is not especially desirable for commercial orchards. Numerous small Rambo orchards are found in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and some Central States. In ordinary storage, the apples keep until November and in cold storage until February.
Ribston. The Ribston is an apple that is in the season with Hubbardston and Tompkins King varieties. It is an old variety, having originated over 200 years ago in Yorkshire, England. It is grown commercially in Nova Scotia and Ontario, and much of the fruit is exported to England. The tree is medium in size, hardy, vigorous, healthy, comes into bearing young, and is usually an annual bearer.
Fig. 12 Shows a Ribston Apple That Was Grown in Nova Scotia. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cb533259
The Ribson is medium in size and is roundish in form, often somewhat flattened at the base. The skin is either smooth or slightly roughened with russet; in color, it is a deep yellow or greenish-yellow, overspread with a dull red. The flesh is tinged with yellow, is firm and juicy, and the quality is excellent. The season extends from September to December or January or later.
35. Tolman. The Tolman, or Tolman Sweet, is a yellow, rather attractive sweet apple grown to a limited extent in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Southern Canada, and the Central States' prairie regions. The tree is moderately vigorous, a good grower, long-lived, and very hardy.
Fig. 13 Shows a Tolman Apple. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cb62e1ab
The Tolman is about average in size and is nearly spherical. The skin is tough and, in many specimens, is marked by a suture line that extends out from the cavity and sometimes reaches as far as the basin. The color is a pale yellow, sometimes slightly blushed. The flesh is white, firm, and rather hard; in quality, it is perfect.
The taste is decidedly sweet. The variety is not planted to any extent in commercial orchards, but the fruit from small orchards can often be disposed of locally to a particular trade. In ordinary storage, the apples will keep until about the first of January and in cold storage to about March or April.
36. York Imperial. The York Imperial, known locally as the Hillside apple, is a widely known variety grown commercially in Southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and westward into Missouri and Kansas. When grown in regions farther north, the fruit is likely to be deficient in size, color, and quality.
This variety originated as a chance seedling near York, Pennsylvania. On account of its excellent keeping quality when kept in ordinary storage, it soon became distributed to the nearby regions. It was later adopted for commercial planting in the Central States.
Fig. 14 illustrates a York Imperial Apple from Southern Pennsylvania. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cb878bde
The tree is vigorous, a thrifty grower, a good cropper, and bears biennially, or, in some cases, annually. The fruit is medium to large when grown under favorable conditions. In form, it is roundish oblate and distinctly oblique, or lopsided, as shown in Fig. 14, which illustrates a York Imperial apple from Southern Pennsylvania.
The lopsided form is a distinct characteristic of the variety. The skin is tough, bright, and smooth. The color is green, or a yellow blushed with a pinkish-red and sometimes striped indistinctly with carmine. The flesh is yellowish, firm, and relatively juicy; in quality, it is generally good, but in some cases only fair.
The fruit varies as to the length of time it will keep in storage. In cellar storage, it will sometimes keep until April or later, and at other times it may last only through January. In cold storage, it seems to scald badly and may last only through February.
37. Smith Cider. The Smith Cider Apple is well known in Southeastern Pennsylvania and Northeastern Maryland and is grown to some extent in Western Ohio and Eastern Indiana, principally in home orchards. The tree is moderately vigorous and has long stout, straggling branches. The fruit, when well grown, is from medium to large, but under average conditions, it is below medium.
The form is round, sometimes oblate inclined to conic. Occasionally, the sides are unequal, as in the York Imperial. The skin is thin and tough and either smooth or slightly roughened with russet lines about the basin. The color is pale yellow or green, mottled and shaded with pinkish-red, and splashed and striped with a bright carmine.
Fig. 15 Shows a Smith Cider Apple that was Grown in Maryland. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cb889b41
The overall color effect is a striped pinkish red. Fig. 15 shows a Smith Cider apple that was grown in Maryland. The flesh is whitish in color and firm in texture. The apple is juicy, of good flavor, and especially desirable for cooking purposes. It will keep in cellar storage until January or February and sometimes longer. In cold storage, one can keep it until March.
38. Cranberry. The Cranberry is a fall or early winter variety well-known in parts of New York and Southern Canada. The tree is large, vigorous, hardy, and, as a rule, productive. The fruit is large in size and roundish oblate in form. The skin is smooth and glossy; in color, it is a clear yellow, overlaid, in the case of well-colored specimens, with blushes, splashes, and stripes of scarlet.
Fig. 16 Illustrates a Cranberry Apple that was Grown in Ontario. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cbc69055
The flesh of the Cranberry is white or sometimes slightly yellowish, firm, juicy, and fair to good quality. The fruit is more desirable for cooking than for dessert. The season varies according to the locality where the fruit is grown.
In Ontario and Northern New York, the apples will keep until midwinter; in Southern New York, they will last until about the first part of December.
39. Esopus. The Esopus, or Esopus Spitzenburg, commonly known simply as the Spitzenburg, is an apple of the Baldwin type but is better quality and more highly prized as a fancy dessert fruit than the latter. It is also a good quality cooking apple. The variety is grown commercially to a limited extent in New York and the other Eastern States. Still, its importance as a commercial apple is most significant in the northwestern fruit-growing section of the United States.
The tree of the Spitzenburg is instead a slow grower and generally rated as a moderate cropper. The fruit ranges from medium to large; the form is rather broad and flat at the base, varying from oblong to roundish ovate or roundish conic. The skin is tough and often waxy and is roughened by russet dots.
In Fig. 17, a Fancy Washington-Grown Spitzenburg Apple Is Shown at the Top of the Page. An Arkansas Black Apple Is Shown at the Bottom of the Page. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cbe11b3d
The under color is yellow and is overlaid with bright red inconspicuously striped with a darker red. In well-colored specimens, the red assumes a purplish tint, and the surface is marked with pale yellow and russet dots. In Fig. 17, a fancy Washington-grown Spitzenburg apple is shown at the top of the page.
The flesh of the Spitzenburg is yellowish in color, crisp, and tender in texture, and of very good to best quality. The season extends from November to February or March in ordinary storage and May or June in cold storage.
The advantages of the Spitzenburg are high color, good quality, and uniformity of shape. When packed in attractive packages, the apples bring a fancy price on the market. The disadvantages of the variety are that the tree is a slow grower and is subject to canker and that the fruit is subject to apple scab. However, these troubles can largely be controlled by careful spraying, pruning, cultivating, and fertilizing.
40. Arkansas Black. The Arkansas Black, a seedling of the Winesap, is a beautiful apple, is a good keeper, and brings reasonable prices on the market. Still, it has the disadvantage of being rather nonproductive. The tree is only moderately vigorous. The fruit is medium in size and nearly round in form. The skin is smooth and waxy, and in color is yellow and varies from wide to moderately narrow.
Fig. 18 Shows a Jonathan Apple at the Top of the Page; This Apple Was Grown in Pennsylvania. A Delicious Apple Is Shown at the Bottom of the Page. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ccc5b7a4
The skin is thin, tough, and smooth; the under color is yellowishly overlaid with a lively red indistinctly striped with carmine. A splash of yellow is often seen near the cavity where a twig or a leaf has shaded the fruit. This condition can be seen in Fig. 18, which shows a Jonathan apple at the top of the page; this apple was grown in Pennsylvania.
The flesh of the Jonathan apple is yellowish or whitish, often marked with red. The apples are juicy and spicy, and the quality is very good to best. The season of the Jonathan is from October to sometime in January if kept in ordinary storage, and to February or March if kept in cold storage. The fruit is highly desirable for the Christmas trade.
43. Delicious. The Delicious is a relatively new variety of apple that is very promising for commercial planting, especially in the fruit-growing regions of the Northwest. The tree is a vigorous grower and produces a large quantity of pollen; the latter quality makes the Delicious useful for planting with deficient varieties in the amount of pollen produced.
The fruit is large to very large and oblong conic in shape. The skin is thin and smooth, almost polished; in color, it is a pale yellow overlaid with splashes and stripes of different shades of red. The overall color effect is a lovely red.
Fig 19 Illustrates a Characteristic of the Delicious Apple -- Five Points That Project from the Basin. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19ccf61342
In Fig. 18, a Delicious apple is shown at the bottom of the page. A characteristic of the fruit is five points that project from the basin, as shown in Fig. 19. The flesh of the Delicious is a pale yellow, tender, and moderately juicy. The quality is of the best, especially for dessert.
44. Rhode Island Greening. The Rhode Island Greening, commonly known simply as the Greening, is the best known green apple in America. It is an essential commercial variety in New England, New York, Northern Pennsylvania, Southern Canada, and parts of Ohio and Michigan. It is about as well known and in great demand on the market as the Baldwin.
The tree, when properly managed, is a reliable cropper, yielding fruit annually. It is large, spreading inhabit, and has dense foliage. The fruit is above medium to large; it is grass green in color in autumn, later developing a slightly yellowish tinge. The apples are never striped, but occasionally they form a relatively bright cheek.
In Fig. 20, a Rhode Island Greening Apple Is Shown at the Top of the Page. a Northwestern Apple Is Shown at the Bottom of the Page; This Apple Was Grown in Iowa. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cd283cbf
In form, they are roundish oblate. The skin is relatively thick, tough, and smooth and is covered with grayish-white or russet dots that are more numerous toward the basin than elsewhere. In Fig. 20, a Rhode Island Greening apple is shown at the top of the page. The flesh of the Rhode Island Greening is yellowish, firm, fine-grained, and juicy; in quality, it is excellent.
The Greening is highly prized for cooking and is thought to be an excellent dessert fruit, notwithstanding that it has a rather peculiar flavor. The Greening is a good shipper, is well known to consumers, and is a profitable variety to grow where the location is favorable. Its season is about the same as that of the Baldwin.
45. Northwestern. The Northwestern, or Northwestern Greening, is similar in some respects to the Rhode Island Greening The Northwestern is hardier than the Rhode Island Greening. For this reason, it has been planted in districts where the climate is too severe for the latter.
The tree is hardy and vigorous and, although it is likely to come into bearing late, is a good cropper, yielding fruit, as a rule, biennially. The fruit is large to very large in size, generally roundish in form, and greenish or yellowish. The dots vary from small to large and are conspicuous.
In Fig. 20, a Northwestern apple is shown at the bottom of the page; this apple was grown in Iowa. In quality, the fruit of this variety is inferior to that of the Rhode Island Greening, ranking only fair for both cooking and dessert. The type is best known in Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, where it is grown commercially. The fruit will keep reasonably well in cold storage until April or May.
46. Green Newtown. The Green Newtown is very similar to the variety known as the Yellow Newtown, which is described later; in fact, it is thought by some horticulturists that one is a strain of the other, and it has not been determined which was the parent and which was the seedling Green Newtown trees are relatively slow of growth, attain suitable size, and under favorable conditions come into bearing young; they are good yielders.
The tree is slightly drooping in habit. The fruit ranges from moderate to very large; it is usually roundish oblate in form; the skin is tough and may either be smooth or slightly roughened. The color is generally grass green when the fruit is picked, but the apples are likely to become yellowish on standing.
The flesh is either yellowish or tinged with green according to the skin color, and the quality is of the best. The apples are highly prized both for cooking and for dessert. The season may extend anywhere from February to April, or May, depending on where the fruit was grown and the method of storage.
The environment markedly influences the Green Newtown variety, and the locations where it can be grown successfully are limited. The lower part of the Hudson River Valley in New York, the Piedmont and mountainous regions of Virginia and North Carolina, and certain localities in California, Oregon, and Washington are favorable for producing the variety.
47. Yellow Newtown. The Yellow Newtown variety differs in but a few particulars from the Green Newtown. The former tree is slightly more vigorous, and in the habit, it is more erect than that of the latter. The fruit is like that of the Green Newtown, except in the skin color and color, and flavor of the flesh.
At harvest time, the apples are yellow, and often there is a pink blush spread over a part of the surface. The flesh is yellowish, and the flavor is mild and aromatic. As a commercial variety, Yellow Newtown is highly profitable. Like the Green Newtown, it is susceptible to environmental conditions and grows well only in certain localities. Its area of production is about the same as that of the Green Newtown.
In Albemarle County, Virginia, the Yellow Newtown grows exceedingly well. It was formerly thought that the apples produced in this region were a distinct variety. They were known as Albemarle Pippins; this term is still frequently applied to the Yellow Newtown variety fruit. Hundreds of barrels of so-called Albemarle Pippins are exported to England annually.
The beginning of the demand for this fruit can be traced to a peculiar incident. During the first year of the reign of Queen Victoria of England, Andrew Stevenson, a resident of Albemarle County, was Minister to the Court of St. James, and from among the Albemarle Pippins, he had shipped to England for his use, he presented several barrels to Queen Victoria.
She was much pleased with the fruit, and out of courtesy to him, removed from Albemarle Pippins, the tax levied on fruit. From that time to the present, the demand for Albemar e Pippins has grown steadily in English markets.
48. King David. The King David apple is a new variety of considerable promise. It is thought to be a cross between the Jonathan and the Arkansas Black apples. The tree dramatically resembles that of the Jonathan but is said to be more vigorous and hardy. The fruit also resembles that of the Jonathan but is larger and of a deeper red color. In flavor, the fruit is very rich and spicy. The season of the King David apple is said to be a little longer than that of the Jonathan apple. This is a good variety for planting where the fruit is wanted for fancy trade or export.
49. Ben Davis. The Ben Davis is probably grown over a wider area than any other variety. It is thought that more Ben Davis trees are grown than those of any other apple. The section best suited to the production of this variety is Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Illinois, and Arkansas; however, it has been found to succeed pretty well wherever it has been planted, and many Ben Davis orchards are found in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and parts of Canada.
The tree of the Ben Davis is medium in size and is instead a rank grower when young; it has coarse, strong wood that will stand under heavy crops. The form tends to be upright and roundish, becoming instead spreading in old trees. The fruit is usually above medium to large in size and roundish conic to somewhat oblong.
The skin is tough, waxy, bright, smooth, and glossy. The color is clear yellow or greenish, mottled and washed with bright red, and striped and splashed with dark carmine, which gives the overall effect of bright deep red or red striped.
In Fig. 21: (top) Ben Davis Apple Grown in Virginia. (bottom) A Gano Apple Grown in Pennsylvania. Essentials of Fruit Culture, 1912. GGA Image ID # 19cd3c796f
In Fig. 21, a Ben Davis apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was grown in Virginia. The flesh of the Ben Davis is whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, and moderately coarse, tending to be somewhat tough. As rated by horticulturists, the quality is good, but to the layman, it is only fair or even poor.
The principal advantage of the Ben Davis is the heavy crop it bears. When other varieties are on the market, it sells for a low price, but often late in the season. Dealers get a reasonable price for the fruit. From the standpoint of the apple market, it is doubtful whether the planting of Ben Davis should be increased. The season extends as late as June or July if the fruit is kept in cold storage.
50. Gano. The Gano is an apple of the Ben Davis type, but it is somewhat superior to the latter in quality. It is thought to be a better apple for northern regions like New York and Northern Pennsylvania than the Ben Davis apple. The tree is usually vigorous and of the same upright spreading habit as the Ben Davis. The fruit is medium in size and roundish conic in form. Often the cavity is slightly furrowed.
The skin is smooth and waxy and is light yellow, overlaid with pale pinkish or purplish-red obscurely striped. Often the red is almost a solid color. The general color effect is a fine, clear red.
Fig. 21, a Gano apple is shown at the bottom of the page; this apple was grown in Pennsylvania. The flesh of the Gano is whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, and coarse in texture. The quality is, perhaps, a little better than that of the Ben Davis. The season of the Gano is about the same as that of the Ben Davis.
51. Winesap. The Winesap apple is one of the oldest grown in America. It may be termed a middle-latitude apple and is well known in Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, and some Western States. The tree is of medium size, rather vigorous comes into bearing early, and is usually an annual cropper.
The fruit tends to be small, although it attains a good size when grown under favorable conditions. The form of the Winesap is usually roundish, slightly conical, and truncate at the base. The skin is medium-thick, tough, smooth, and glossy. The ground color is yellow, or greenish, overlaid with deep red indistinctly striped and blotched with a dark purplish-red.
In Fig. 22, a Winesap apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was grown near Selah, Washington. The flesh of the Winesap is yellowish, and sometimes veins of red can be seen running through it. The overall effect is a bright deep red. The apples are juicy and crisp, and the quality is good to very good. The usual limit in cold storage is April.
52. Black Ben Davis. The Black Ben Davis is an apple of the Ben Davis type but is resembles the Gano more than the Ben Davis. As it is often called, the Black Ben is grown to a considerable extent in the Central and Western States. The tree, when young, is upright, but on reaching maturity, it becomes rather spreading and dense.
The fruit is medium to large and roundish ovate to roundish conic in form. The skin is thin, tough, smooth, and glossy. The under color is a clear pale yellow, but it is, on well-matured specimens, covered with a brilliant red that becomes a dark purple on the side exposed to the sun.
The season lasts until April and May if the fruit is kept in cold storage. In Fig. 22, a Black Ben Davis apple is shown at the bottom of the page; this apple was grown in Washington.
53. Rome Beauty. The Rome Beauty is an old variety commonly grown in New Jersey and Southern Ohio; it is also grown in parts of Missouri and some of the Pacific Coast States. The tree is not particularly vigorous but attains medium size and comes into bearing early.
The fruit ranges in size from medium to very large; in the form, it is roundish to roundish conic, sometimes slightly oblong. The skin is thick, tough, and smooth. The color is greenish or yellowish mottled with bright red that, on well-colored specimens, deepens to almost a solid red on the exposed cheek. The dominant color is red mixed with yellow.
In Fig. 23, a Rome Beauty apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was grown in Washington. The flesh of the Rome Beauty is nearly white, with a slight tinge of yellow or green; it is juicy, crisp, of an agreeable taste, and good quality. The fruit is used for both dessert and cooking purposes.
The season of the Rome Beauty extends to about April or May if the apples are kept in cold storage.
54. Stayman Winesap. A seedling of the Winesap, known as the Stayman Winesap, is considered by many to be better for general cultivation than its parent. The variety was originated in 1866 from the seed of the Winesap by Dr. J. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, from whom it derives its name.
The tree is reasonably vigorous, and the form is spreading and somewhat open. The fruit is from medium to very large and is roundish conic to spherical. The skin is smooth, relatively thick, and tough. The under color is greenish or yellowish, often almost completely covered with a dull red over color that is rather indistinctly striped with carmine.
59. Ingram. The Ingram, a seedling of the Ralls, originated about 1850 on the farm of Martin Ingram, near Springfield, Missouri. The tree blooms late bears fruit of better quality, and the much better color is a more rapid grower and has stronger branches than the Ralls; the trees tend to bear in alternate years, but not to such a significant extent as the Ralls variety.
The tree is adapted to conditions such as those found in Missouri; on account of the trees blooming so late, the fruit requires a long season for development, and for this reason, the variety is not adapted for culture in northern latitudes. The tree is vigorous, with moderately stout branches. The fruit is below medium to medium in size and roundish conic to roundish oblate, tending to be oblique in form.
The skin is thick, tough, and smooth. The color is a bright greenish-yellow or pale yellow washed, mottled, and striped with two shades of red. It is almost entirely overspread with a rather dark red in regions where it can reach its best development. An Ingram apple that was grown in Missouri is shown in Fig. 26.
The flesh of the Ingram is tinged with yellow; it is firm and hard but becomes crisp and tender late in the season. The quality is excellent. In Missouri, the season of the Ingram is from December to June.
This is one of the best cold-storage apples, specimens kept in reasonably good condition for two years. It is probably the safest variety that they can plant in the Ozark section, and if the tree is kept pruned rather heavily, the fruit will attain a reasonable market size.
60. Roxbury. The Roxbury is a russet apple grown commercially in some sections where the Baldwin, Spy, and Greening are grown. The tree is medium to large and relatively vigorous. When grown on rich soil in favorable locations, it is generally a reliable cropper. As a rule, this variety is a biennial bearer. The fruit is of about medium size and oblate or oblate conic in form.
The skin is sometimes smooth but usually is roughened with a greenish to yellowish-brown russet. Dots of russet or gray are conspicuous on the surface. A Roxbury of good size and form is shown in Fig. 27.
The flesh of the Roxbury is yellowish or greenish, and the quality is good to very good. A particular advantage of the variety is that it is a good keeper. The season of the fruit, when it is kept in cold storage, extends from December to as late as July.
61. Golden Russet. The Golden Russet variety is grown commercially in some sections of the Eastern States. It is an excellent storage variety, sells well in the general market, and is particularly in demand for shipment to northwestern and southern markets. The tree is from medium to large and from moderately vigorous to vigorous.
The fruit varies from below to above medium in size. The skin is thick and moderately tender; it is usually almost entirely covered with a greenish or yellowish russet, which, in highly colored specimens, becomes a golden russet with a bronze cheek. The flesh is yellowish, relatively fine-grained, tender, juicy, and very good. The Golden Russet is valuable as a cider apple. The season is from December to April or later.
62. Pewaukee. The Pewaukee is a northern grown variety that originated by crossing the Oldenburg and the Northern Spy. , The tree is vigorous, medium to large, and a strong grower. It bears at a relatively early age and, with good care, is a reliable cropper; it usually bears biennially but sometimes annually.
The fruit is medium to large and is roundish oblate to roundish ovate. The cavity is often tiny and shallow. The skin is smooth and rather tough and is of a grass green or yellowish color that is mottled with orange, red, and striped and splashed with carmine. The overall effect is a mixture of red and yellow or red and green.
Fig. 28 illustrates a Pewaukee apple that was grown in New York State. The flesh of the Pewaukee is whitish, tender, and relatively coarse. The quality is fair to good either for cooking or dessert. The season varies somewhat.
Often one may keep the fruit in cold storage until April; again, it may go down in January or February. The Pewaukee is not particularly desirable for commercial planting, primarily because it is not well known by consumers and is not in much demand.
63. Grimes. The Grimes, or Grimes Golden, apple is adapted to middle latitudes and is one of the best quality apples produced. In West Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana, many commercial orchards of this variety prove very profitable. The tree is moderately vigorous. The branches are short, curved, and crooked. It bears biennially, although in some cases annually, and is a good cropper.
In Fig. 29, a Grimes Golden apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was grown in Southern Ohio. The fruit is medium to large in size and roundish oblong, often truncate in form. The skin is tough and slightly roughened. The color is deep yellow with scattering pale yellow or russet dots. The flesh of the Grimes is yellow, firm, tender, and of very good to best quality.
The fruit loses some of its quality and is likely to scald in storage. However, one can keep the apples until January or February in cold storage. The Grimes is recommended for commercial planting in the districts mentioned and is worthy of trial in home orchards in these and other similar sections.
64. White Pearmain. As it is sometimes called, the White Pearmain, or White Winter Pearmain, is a favorite dessert apple in some parts of the Central and the Western States. The variety is not grown extensively in commercial orchards but is much prized for home orchards. The tree is vigorous and wide-spreading. In size, the fruit is from medium to large, and in form is roundish ovate to oblong conic.
The skin is tough and smooth. The color is a pale yellow or greenish shaded with brownish-red. In Fig. 29, a White Pearmain apple is shown at the bottom of the page. The flesh is yellowish, tender, and juicy; it is very good to best in quality. The White Pearmain can be kept in storage until about March.
65. Huntsman. The Huntsman variety, commonly known among growers as the Huntsman Favorite, is grown to a considerable extent in Missouri and Kansas. The Huntsman is a dessert apple of high quality, but it is more often found in home orchards than commercial plantings. The tree is vigorous and is a late but regular bearer and generally prolific.
Fig. 30 shows a Huntsman apple that was grown in Missouri. The fruit is of medium to large size and is roundish oblate and slightly conic in form. The skin is thick but tender, and the color is yellow, somewhat greenish, often having a red blush. The flesh is yellowish, relatively firm, and juicy; in quality, it is good to very good, especially for dessert. one can keep the apples in cold storage until April.
66. Willow. The Willow, or Willow Twig, variety is mainly grown in the Mississippi Valley. The tree is large, vigorous, and of upright habit. The fruit is large to medium in size and roundish inclined to conic in form; sometimes, it is roundish oblate. The skin is smooth and somewhat glossy. The color is a yellowish-green, blushed and mottled with red, and striped and splashed irregularly with a deeper red.
Fig. 31 shows a Willow apple that was grown in Missouri. The flesh of the Willow is either yellowish or greenish, firm, coarse, and juicy; the quality is only fair to good. The general effect is a dull red. The season extends to May if the fruit is kept in cold storage. The apple is susceptible to scab, blight, and bitter rot, and for this reason, fruit growers are not planting it as extensively as in the past.
67. Mann. The Mann variety is grown on a small scale commercially in New York, the New England States, and Ontario. The tree is medium to large, vigorous, hardy, a reliable cropper, and a good yielder. The fruit is medium to large and roundish inclined to oblate in form. The skin is thick and tough. The color is a deep green that becomes yellow as the season advances.
Fig. 32 shows a Mann apple that was grown in Ontario, Canada. The quality is fair to good, being inferior to that of the Rhode Island Greening. The flesh of the Mann is yellowish and coarse; at first, it is hard and firm but becomes tender on standing. One can keep the fruit until May in cold storage.
68. Stark. The Stark is a late winter apple that is widely disseminated throughout the United States and Canada. The tree is vigorous and ranges in size from large to moderately large. It is a reliable cropper and very productive. The fruit is large to medium in size; sometimes, it is very large.
In form, it is roundish, inclined to conic, varying to slightly oblate or roundish ovate. The skin is either smooth or roughened somewhat with russet dots. In the fall, the color is pale green; as winter advances, the color becomes a yellow, more or less blushed and mottled and rather indistinctly striped with red. The overall color effect is a dull green or yellow mixed with red.
Fig. 33 illustrates a Stark apple that was grown in Ontario, Canada. The flesh of the Stark is yellowish and firm; in quality, it is fair to good. One can often keep the apples in storage until May; if held until late in the year, they will likely bring reasonable prices.
Essentials of Fruit Culture, Varieties of Apples, Apple Culture, Apple Pests and Injuries, Apple Harvesting, Storing, and Marketing. Pear Culture, Cherries, Apricots, and Quinces. Scranton: International Textbook Company, 1912