Kitchen, Galley, Meals and Cargo on a Steamship
1893 Cunard Passenger's Log Book
The immensity which characterises the whole of the new ship is very properly extended to this department, for prompt service, essential to a well ordered establishment, is impossible without ample accommodation. Large pantries have therefore been provided, an apartment being fitted up on either side of the steamer, on the main deck, immediately aft of the dining saloon.
These pantries are fitted up in a most complete manner with all the details which the long experience of the Cunard Company's stewards suggested.
The fittings are more or less of standard patterns for this class of ship, but the magnitude of the equipment at once impresses the visitor, and notably the number of special fittings, such as hotplates, steam tables, tea and coffee machinery, etc.
The galleys or kitchens, have been arranged on the port side of the ship, and adjoining them are the bakeries and sculleries, Two lifts are provided in the galley for the rapid handling of the food supplies, one for taking to the scullery plates to be washed, while the other is used solely for service from the kitchen.
The galley is a large, well-lit, and carefully ventilated apartment, from 25 feet to 3o feet square, One side is completely taken up with the range, which is 25 feet long by 4 feet wide, supplied by Messrs. John Phillips & Co,, of Glasgow.
The great size of this range will more readily appeal to the mind of the housewife, when we state that nearly 170 dinner plates, or ordinary stew pots or pans, might be set on its surface.
While there are many large ovens, special boilers, which in form resemble enormous egg-shells, are utilized for various purposes ; vegetable cookers, etc., the cooking being done by steam, which circulates round the outer casing of the boiler.
There is also an immense grill, and here, as in the case of the range, the waste heat is utilized for heating plates, etc,, in small ovens in the up-take. The floor is laid with tiles, and throughout there is a feeling of cleanliness and roominess.
The butcher's shop adjoins, and next to it is the bakery, fitted with large oven. The bakers turn out at 4 a.m., or there would be no hot rolls or cakes for breakfast.
The cooks begin operations at 5-30 a.m., and at 6 a.m. coffee is served in the staterooms to any passenger requiring it, or on deck, should any passenger have so far forgotten himself as to get out of bed at that hour.
Breakfast is served from 8 to to a.m., lunch from 1 to 2 p.m., dinner from 5 to 7 p.m,, and supper from 9 to 10 p.m. so that the cooks are employed till 10 p.m., while the bakers finish their day's work at 7 p.m. The stewards turn out at 6 a.m., and do not finish work till I 1 o'clock p.m.
Provision Stores on the Campania
Extensive cold-air provision stores have been provided below the kitchens, etc.
The necessity for large storage capacity will be readily appreciated when we state that the Campania, when carrying her complete number of passengers, will start on her voyage with something like ...
- 20,000 lbs, fresh beef,
- 1000 lbs, corned beef,
- 10,000 lbs. mutton,
- 1400 lbs. lamb,
- 500 lbs, veal,
- 500 lbs. pork,
- 3,500 lbs. fresh fish,
- 10,000 fowls,
- 400 chickens,
- 150 ducks,
- 80 geese,
- 100 turkeys,
- 30 tons potatoes,
- 30 hampers vegetables,
- 300 quarts ice-cream,
- 1600 quarts milk,
- 18,000 eggs, etc,, etc,
Again, in groceries something like 200 different articles will be carried, including
- 1000 lbs. tea,
- 1500 lbs. coffee,
- 2800 lbs, white sugar,
- 4500 lbs. moist sugar,
- 1000 lbs. pulverized sugar,
- 2400 lbs, cheese,
- 3000 lbs, butter,
- 6000 lbs, ham, and
- 1800 lbs, bacon,
The quantities seem large, but it would be easy, if considered desirable, to account for the consumption.
Each member of the crew is allowed 2 lbs. of beef per day, and therefore about B00 lbs, a day will be thus disposed of, while 400 lbs, will be used each day for beef tea, 18,000 eggs look a large order, being about 2 per mmute of the duration of the voyage, but they disappear in many forms, and one authority says, "it is not an unusual thing to see a lady or gentleman finish off a supper of grilled chicken and devilled sardines, with four poached eggs on toast."
Lemons are used at the rate of per head, per day, oranges 3 per head, per day, and apples, when in season, at the rate of 2 3/4 per head, per day ; and the wines, spirits, and beer consumed -- that is purely a case of local option -- and our purpose is to note the necessity for storage capacity, not to deal altogether with consumption ; and therefore, it may be sufficient to state that an abundant supply of pure water is provided by three condensers on the Normandy principle,
The cold air chambers are worked on the D. la Vergne principle. The method adopted for cooling is by the circulation of cold brine through coils of pipes, which goes on continually, These brine circulating pipes are divIded into two sets, so that any leakage or repair can be attended to on one section without interfering with the circulation through the other, each section being sufficient to maintain the low temperature in the room.
Special means are also provided for withdrawing the brine from either section without interfering with the working of the other, The refrigerators and all cold parts of the machine are enclosed in a carefully insulated chamber to minimise the losses as far as possible.
The cold chambers are carefully insulated with double thicknesses of tongued and grooved boards with waterproof paper between them, 2 inches of best hair felt, one inch of air space, and again a double thickness of boards and waterproof paper, the whole being furnished with two coats of varnish.
The brine pipes are 2 inch galvanised tube. The meat hook rails are of inch galvanised round iron, on which are placed galvanised steel hooks for carrying the quarters of beef. Each chamber is fitted with thermometer tubes from upper deck, so that the temperature may be ascertained in any part at intervals,
Notwithstanding the " Campania's" great size she will not carry a large amount of cargo, about 1620 tons being only accommodated. On the orlop deck there are extensive holds fore and aft, but when it is noted that the machinery takes up nearly three-fourths the length of the ship on this deck, the small proportion of carrying capacity to the total area in the ship will be accounted for, Besides, a very large part of this area has to be reserved for the MAILS for very few, if indeed any, Cunard steamers have left Britain on an Atlantic voyage without mails since the Government first determined to send them by steamers on the maiden trip of the pioneer Cunard liner " Britannia," in 1840.
The extent of room required for the mails may be judged by the fact that occasionally the bags exceed 2000 in number, and sometimes requires two trains between London and Holyhead to convey them. There are five holds, and such as are not required for the mails and passenger's baggage are given over for cargo of the first class.
One class of cargo specially suited to these large first-class steamers is preserved meat, and the " Campania" has very large holds fitted with refrigerating machinery for this special trade. The development of this traffic during the past few years justifies this position, In 1876 the amount of fresh meat conveyed to this country from the States was only 90,790 quarters, valued at £223,698.
In four years the amount increased fivefold, Since then the importation of live cattle has been against the dead-meat trade ; still, over 500,000 cwts. of fresh meat are imported from the States every year at a value of £. 1,138,000, The refrigerating machinery for the meat-carrying chamber is equal to produce twelve tons of ice per day. There are three chambers having a total capacity of 20,000 cubic feet, and capable of carrying 2700 quarters of beef,