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BUTTER - Defined, Types and Varieties

BUTTER—Takes a very prominent part in culinary matters, forms some special butters used for garnishing and scarcely enters at all into what are now known as BUTTER CAKES—Composed of ten pounds of flour, one ounce of soda, one ounce of salt mixed together dry, then moistened with three egg yolks, two ounces of melted butter and two quarts of buttermilk; this is mixed and well broken, then is added three quarts of buttermilk and one quart of sweet milk, this brings it to the consistency of biscuit dough; spread out on table, let rest half an hour, then rolled
out, let rest another half hour; again rolled out, cut out with biscuit cutter, allowed to raise or proof and baked on a griddle.

ANCHOVY BUTTER—Two parts of butter to one part of anchovy essence, thoroughly mixed with a little grated Parmesan cheese and seasoned with nutmeg, red pepper and a dash of lemon juice.

CRAYFISH BUTTER — Crayfish shells and claws slowly dried in the oven with a little lobster coral, pounded to a paste, then put with butter and simmered for a few minutes, rubbed through a fine sieve into cold water, then gathered for use.

LOBSTER BUTTER—The head and coral of boiled lobster with its equal weight of butter pounded to a paste with a dash of anchovy essence and a little dry mustard, then rubbed through a fine sieve; gathered for use.

MONTPELIER BUTTER—Blanched watercress, chervil, tarragon and parsley, with hard boiled egg yolks, a few anchovies, gherkins, capers and a clove of garlic are pounded to a paste with their equal weight of butter, a little tarragon vinegar and lemon juice; when smooth, rubbed through a fine sieve and gathered for use.

MAITRE D'HOTEL BUTTER—To each cup of melted butter is added a large spoonful of chopped parsley, juice of two lemons, seasoned with salt, red pepper and nutmeg.

PEPPER BUTTER—Three medium sized green peppers pounded to a paste with one pound of butter, then rubbed through a fine sieve and gathered for use.

RAVIGOTE BUTTER—Blanched chives, parsley, tarragon and shallots, pounded to a paste with butter, lemon juice and a dash of anchovy essence, then rubbed through a fine sieve and gathered for use.

GARLIC BUTTER—A few cloves of garlic are pounded to a paste with olive oil and butter; when smooth, rubbed through a fine sieve; gathered for use.

HORSERADISH BUTTER—Four ounces of fine grated horseradish to each pound of butter pounded to a paste, then rubbed through a sieve and gathered for use. Many people like this on broiled steaks instead of Maitre D'Hôtel butter.

SHRIMP BUTTER—Equal weight of shrimp meat (canned or fresh), pounded to a paste with butter, then rubbed through a sieve and gathered for use.

DRAWN BUTTER—Half a pound of clear melted butter, put on fire in a saucepan with two ounces of flour, mixed together, pint of boiling water stirred into it, simmered for a minute, then ready for use.

BUTTER ADULTERATIONS — Although on account of the strict pure food laws are rare, still country butter as is often to be purchased by the steward on the open market is sometimes adulterated with wheat, pea, potato flour.; chalk, potato starch, and variously colored with yellow chrome, carrot juice, saffron, alkanet, marigold flowers and celandine juice.

BUTTERINE OR MARGARINE—Is a preparation of animal fats, made by working the fats at the natural heat of the animal, then pressing it by hydraulic pressure, the oil thus obtained is then churned with diluted milk or water.

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