Information for Discharged Soldiers of the United States Army (1919)
VALUABLE INFORMATION: For Discharged Soldiers of the
United States Army
Compiled Under the Direction of
MAJOR GENERAL W. A. HOLBROOK, U. S. ARMY
Commanding Camp Grant, Illinois
MAJOR FRANCIS B. EASTMAN,
Camp Morale Officer
Men of the Service:
This pamphlet has been written solely for your benefit. It contains information of vital importance to you, and should be carefully preserved for future reference.
It is presented to you with the compliments of the War Camp Community Service of Rockford, Illinois.
Headquarters, Camp Grant, Illinois
April 25, 1919.
Soldiers of the United States Army, Camp Grant, Ill., The Army is being demobilized; you are returning to your homes and vocations of peace. If the soldiers of the American Army take up their duties as citizens, with the same zeal and devotion to duty which has characterized their military career, a bright future is assured for our nation.
You have not only contributed your share toward the winning of this war, but have builded, at home, the physical and spiritual fortifications which will stand as long as you live. The sacrifice you have made in the defense of our institutions and the cause of LIBERTY shall be an enduring monument and a guide-post for future generations, to remind them of your noble deeds, and inspire them with the same spirit of patriotism, loyalty, self-sacrifice and love for Our Country.
In handing you this little booklet, containing much valuable information, I wish you, one and all, God Speed.
/s/ W. A. Holbrook
Major General, U. S. A., Commanding.
Army Serial Number:
In all correspondence with the War Department, previous commanding officers, or officials of military bureaus and departments, and the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, a soldier or discharged soldier should invariably mention his Army Serial Number.
Bonus to Discharged Soldiers:
Section 1406 of the Revenue Act, approved February 24, 1919, provides "That all persons serving in the military or naval forces of the United States during the present war who have since April 6, 1917, resigned or been honorably discharged, or who at any time hereafter (but not later than the termination of current enlistment or term of service) may resign or be discharged under honorable conditions, shall be paid, in addition to all other amounts due them in pursuance of law, $60.00 each."
This money is intended to bridge over the period between your leaving the army and getting a position in civil life, and should not be squandered. It is not a windfall, but comes directly or indirectly from the hard earned savings of your family and from the war taxes and liberty bonds to which they contributed.
As a recognition of duties performed in the service of the country, each soldier upon being discharged will be issued three scarlet chevrons. They will be worn, point up, midway between the elbow and shoulder on the left sleeve of the coat and overcoat, and on the shirt when worn without the coat. This will serve to indicate, while the uniform is being worn, that the wearer responded to the demands of the country, has performed creditable service in the army, and finally received an honorable discharge therefrom.
It is unlawful under the National Defense Act for the uniform to be worn by discharged officers or enlisted men without this distinctive mark.
Clothing (see also uniform):
Under the provisions of Par. 1165, Army Regulations, the following articles of clothing and equipment may be permanently retained by enlisted men upon discharge and the clothing may be worn by them thereafter:
- 1 oversea cap (for all enlisted men who have had service overseas) or, 1 hat and 1 hat cord (for all other enlisted men).
- 1 Olive drab shirt.
- 1 Woolen service coat and ornaments.
- 1 pair woolen breeches.
- 1 pair shoes.
- 1 pair canvas or spiral leggins (canvas if available).
- 1 waist belt.
- 1 slicker.
- 1 overcoat.
- 2 suits underwear.
- 4 pairs stockings.
- 1 pair gloves.
- 1 gas mask and helmet (for all officers and enlisted men to whom they were issued overseas.)
- 1 set toilet articles; this includes 1 hairbrush, 1 comb, 1 toothbrush, 1 shaving brush, 1 razor, 1 small steel mirror, and 2 towels (if in possession of soldier at time of discharge.)
- 1 barrack bag.
- 3 scarlet chevrons; to be sewed on uniform prior to discharge when practicable.
Articles issued by Red Cross or other charitable organizations may be retained by the soldier as his personal property.
Enlisted men now in service or about to leave the service may purchase any article of clothing or equipage except uniform outer clothing and collar ornaments. Such articles as underwear, stockings, shoes, toilet articles, etc. are for sale under this authority.
LAWFUL USE OF UNIFORM AFTER DISCHARGE
Section 125 of the Act of Congress of June 3, 1916 (called the National Defense Act), permits a discharged soldier to wear "his uniform from the place of his discharge to his home, within three months after the date of such discharge."
UNLAWFUL USE OF UNIFORM AFTER DISCHARGE
"An officer or enlisted man under a reasonable construction of Section 125 of the National Defense Act (39 Stat. 165, 211) should proceed from the place of his honorable discharge to his home within a reasonable time and upon arrival there his uniform should be discarded, as it is unlawful for him to wear it longer. In no event should he take more than three months and he may not unduly protract his transit." (Decis. J. A. G., Sept. 9, 1918.)
The impersonation of officers and the wearing of uniforms by those not entitled to do so, is a misdemeanor under Section 125, Act of Congress, June 3, 1916. Any person who violates the provisions of this section may on conviction be punished by a fine not exceeding $300.00, or by imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or by both such a fine and imprisonment.
The uniform of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps is the distinguishing mark of these Services. You have learned what these three Services represent in time of war. The honor, dignity and power of your country is symbolized by the uniform of its armed forces, in a degree only exceeded by that of the flag. You would unhesitatingly resent any indignity or disrespect shown to our flag. The uniform is entitled to the same consideration. Do not wear it under circumstances that will tend to bring discredit upon it and yourself. NEVER WEAR IT WHEN ENGAGED IN MANUAL LABOR.
After discharge, under the law, you are authorized to wear your uniform to your home. Be dignified! Proud of it as you are proud of your service. Be courteous. You will meet discharged officers and enlisted men, and you will come in contact with officers who have not been discharged. When in uniform, do not fail to salute just as you would have done before being discharged. The salute is due to and goes with the uniform. To salute after discharge is a voluntary act, not compulsory; but the promptness and smartness with which it is rendered, reflects credit upon yourself, your old organization and the service generally. Among civilians, the graceful precision of the military salute is envied; they cannot do it. Whether in the service or out a properly executed salute marks the trained soldier.
Each soldier honorably discharged from the service of the United States ought to feel the greatest personal gratification. He should be proud of his record, his uniform, and the various badges and insignia awarded him. His discharge certificate ought to be carefully preserved. It is the final and most authoritative testimonial of his faithful and meritorious service. If lost, it cannot be replaced. The regulations provide, however, that in case of a lost discharge, a certificate of service may be issued by the Adjutant General of the Army, upon due proof of the loss or destruction of the discharge certificate.
Applications for a certificate of service should be addressed to "The Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D. C.," and should contain a clear statement of the circumstances of the loss, together with a statement as to organization served with and date of discharge. This statement must be supported by proof, where possible, such as letters or affidavits of persons acquainted with the facts.
Soldiers who are aliens may be naturalized before being discharged from the army. If they desire to do so, they should notify the U. S. Army Naturalization Officer immediately upon their arrival in Camp.
General Orders No. 146, War Department, provides that aliens may remain in the service not to exceed two weeks beyond the time when they would ordinarily be discharged, for the purpose of completing their citizenship. Naturalization classes are conducted at least every two weeks, and are held every week when the number of candidates is sufficiently large to justify it.
Soldiers who have become naturalized citizens while in the military service and have not yet received their certificates of naturalization should report that fact to the U. S. Army Naturalization Officer, giving their full names, the camp where they were naturalized, and their home addresses. Their certificates will be sent for by the Naturalization Officer and forwarded to them by registered mail marked "Deliver to addressee only." After discharge, a man who changes his address before receiving his certificate of naturalization should notify the Naturalization Officer of his new address.
While in the service you have been taught that your physical condition was an important consideration; that sound bodily health and strong, supple muscles enabled you to increase your individual value to your country in the capacity of a soldier. This is no less true in civil life; a clear active brain belongs to a healthy, well cared for body.
Keep in mind the simple principles of personal hygiene you have learned while in the service and apply them faithfully in civil life. You are better able to care for yourself under various conditions than you were prior to enlistment in the Army. This fact will be readily recognized by less fortunate men with whom you will associate upon return to your home.
Your opinion will be sought and your advice asked. Care for yourself, and your example will be more effective than words. By your service you have earned an imperative right to consideration as a conspicuous, influential citizen in your community. Many opportunities will be opened to you. Consider your future, your family, the vital asset-physical strength, and moral cleanliness. Govern yourself accordingly.
The Railway Red Cross Canteen Service has been established in all large cities and stations throughout the country. See local directory.
Meals are served on dining cars to men in uniform for 75c.
Tickets must be purchased at place and upon date of discharge in order to secure the reduced rate authorized for discharged soldiers; two (2) cents per mile from place of discharge to their homes.
At this camp tickets and all necessary information concerning railroad timetables, connecting points and other matters may be had at the office of the United States Railway Administration, Discharge Depot, Building 413C, or the C. B. and Q. R. R. Station.
In the course of the preparation of your papers for discharge many questions will be asked. Answer fully and exactly. Think before you reply. Of course, you want your record truthfully and accurately stated.
In case your Service Record has not reached the place where you are to be discharged on your arrival, to enable you to be promptly discharged and get to your home, the War Department has directed that your own statement be taken as a sufficient basis for the closing of your accounts. This statement must be sworn to, and made as in affidavit. Based on these affidavits, you will be paid, your military history made up, and your discharge certificate delivered to you.
Think over your service. Try to fix in your mind correct dates, places, events. Talk it over with men from your old company. Be careful! An oath is a serious thing. The punishments for defrauding or attempting to. defraud the Government are very severe.
In the course of time, your correct records will be received at Washington and your sworn statement compared therewith. Differences will then be adjusted and many little things you have failed to remember will be recorded. You are not expected to remember all the minor details of your service. But such matters as date of last payment, the period you were paid for; court-martial fines; and lost property that you should pay for are important facts and should be remembered.
Enlistments for all branches of the Regular Army have been resumed. One-third of the enlistments to be for a one year period and the other two-thirds for a three year period-without any "Reserve" attached to the. contract of enlistment. For the present, no restrictions on enlistments of either class are imposed, except that no man shall be enlisted for one year who has not had previous military service.
A month's furlough upon re-enlistment, $60.00 Bonus, a chance to travel, opportunities to rise, vocational training, take a trade course, see the world and earn money at the same time. Many of our highest officers, Major Generals and others, were enlisted men and rose from the ranks-Why not you?
Men may enlist for all branches of the service. If you are anxious to learn Telegraphy, Telephone, Wireless, or even electrical work, you can enlist for the Signal Corps. If you desire to learn the automobile business, mechanically or as a chauffeur, you may be assigned to the Motor Transport Corps. If you are interested in Medicine, you can enlist for the Medical Corps. If you like to ride and work around horses, you can enlist for the Cavalry or Artillery. There are openings for Carpenters, Blacksmiths, Shoemakers, Tailors, Barbers, Musicians, Plumbers, or in almost any line of work which may appeal to you. Vocational training is assured every man who enlists for three years. This is your opportunity to remain in service until conditions in civil life become normal.
If you would like to be stationed on the Sea-Coast, you can enlist for the Coast Artillery. Or if you like to travel, we have troops in the Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands, Panama, Alaska and China, as well as France and Germany.
For further particulars, see Recruiting Officer, Building No. 1130 West, Camp Grant, Illinois.
All officers and soldiers will be notified upon discharge that the Governors of several States have asked that men who have served in the Army, register upon their returning home, with their respective town, city or county clerks, or other appropriate officials. This action is advised on the part of all those returning to communities in which opportunity is afforded for such registration, with a view to the establishment of complete lists, both for convenience in making plans to welcome returning soldiers and for permanent historical record.
request has been received by the War Department from the chief of the Boy Scouts of America for assistance in the matter of obtaining the services of officers and enlisted men returning from overseas as scoutmasters.
The attention of returning Army Officers and enlisted men who have the necessary qualifications is directed to the opportunity which the Boy Scouts afford for them to further serve their country after discharge.
The War Department is in full accord with the purposes of this movement and desires to assist. It is felt that the co-operation of a large number of officers and enlisted men who have seen service in France will inspire the boys with patriotism and a spirit of devotion to their country as nothing else can do.
This subject will be brought to the attention of all officers and men at demobilization camps.
You are entitled to pay at the rate of five (5) cents per mile from place of discharge to place of induction or enlistment.
All Government and co-operating agencies are united to aid discharged soldiers to get proper civilian positions. There are 850 Free U. S. Employment Offices throughout the country and a Bureau for Returning Soldiers, under the direction of the U. S. Employment Service, in each community. All efforts are directed toward, not only replacing men in commerce, industry and agriculture, but in finding for the individual man the best work open for him.
The Inter-state and Inter-community Clearance System . of the Employment Bureau will be utilized so that information as to employment for soldiers may be exchanged between communities for the State. The Bureau has also developed a special section devoted to vocational guidance.
The U. S. Department of Labor advises all farm Owners and those who have had farming experience to return to agricultural pursuits. This vitally important work is under the direction of John B. Densmore, Director-General U. S. Employment Service, Washington, D. C. Your local postmaster will give you the address of the nearest U. S. Employment Office and Bureau for Returning Soldiers.
The Camp Grant U. S. Employment Service Office is located in Building 1130 West. All soldiers are invited to call at any time, to see Mr. John W. Osborne, Camp representative U. S. Dept. of Labor, for any information or advice, or to have letters written to their former or probable new employers.
ALLOTMENTS, COMPENSATIONS, INSURANCE, AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR DISABLED SOLDIERS.
"The three forms of Government aid-allotments and allowances, compensation for death or disability, and United States Government insurances-are grouped together under the War Risk Insurance Act, and administered, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, by the Bureau of War Risk Insurance.
' "This is the greatest measure of protection ever offered to its fighting forces by any nation in the history of the world. It is not charity; it is in the essence of justice to the gallant men who have gone to the colors, and to their loved ones at home. It has strengthened America's fighting forces as they have gone forth to battle; it has safeguarded the families left behind; and by its broad and generous 'provisions it has' taken from war its chief terror-fear for the future."
I. WAR RISK ALLOTMENTS
1. Allotment Checks:
a. In conducting the allotment, allowance, and insurance business for a large army, The Bureau of War Risk Insurance has had a gigantic task. The Bureau has labored under a great many difficulties. Chief among ' these difficulties is the fact that there were many errors and much incompleteness in applications for allotments and Government allowances, when these applications were received at the Bureau. It has therefore been impossible for allotment checks to be delivered to allottees promptly, in all cases.
b. Dependents of many soldiers may not receive final allotment checks until after the soldiers have been discharged. However, it is the purpose of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance to make final payments, in every case, at the earliest possible moment.
a. Should a discharged soldier find it necessary to write regarding his allotment, his letter should be addressed to Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Allotment Section, Washington, D. C., and should include the following information:
a. First, middle and last names.
b. Rank and organization at time allotment was made. c. Army serial number.
d. Name of allottee.
e. Address of allottee.
f. Kind of allotment (compulsory or voluntary).
g. Amount of allotment.
h. Total amount deducted from pay on account of allotment.
i. Effective date of allotment.
j. Date of discharge.
k. Future (home) address of enlisted man.
1. Did enlisted man claim exemption from compulsory allotment? (Circular No. 126, W. D., 1918).
II. CLASS E AND LIBERTY LOAN ALLOTMENTS
Communications concerning Class E, and Liberty Loan allotments (QMC Form 38) should be addressed to, Director of Finance, Pay of the Army Division, Allotment Branch, Washington, D. C.
All correspondence relating to compensation should be , addressed to "Compensation Section, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C.," and should always contain the following information:
a. Soldier's first name, middle name, and last name, in full.
b. Grade, organization and camp at time of discharge.
c. Army serial number.
d. Date of discharge or separation from the service.
e. Present address.
2. Death or Disability:
a. Compensation is the modern American substitute for the pension. It applies to officers and enlisted men alike, when employed in active service, regardless of rank or pay, and is payable for death or disability incurred in line of duty and not caused by their own willful misconduct.
b. In case of DEATH, compensation, which ranges from twenty dollars ($20.00) to seventy-five dollars ($75.00) a month is paid to the soldier's or sailor's widow, children, and dependent father or mother. No other relatives are entitled to compensation. Compensation may be paid to a widow until remarriage, and to a child until the age of eighteen, or until marriage.
c. In case of DISABILITY, compensation is payable to the disabled person himself. If the disability is TOTAL, the amount of compensation varies from thirty dollars ($30:00) to ninety-five dollars ($95.00) per month, according to the size of the disabled man's family. In exceptional cases, a sum not exceeding twenty dollars ($20.00) per month additional may be paid for the services of a nurse.
If the disability is PARTIAL, the compensation is a percentage of the compensation that would be payable for TOTAL disability and the amount varies according to the size of the disabled man's family, and the reduction in his earning capacity. In certain specific cases of TOTAL disability, such as the loss of both feet or both- hands or both eyes, or for becoming helpless or permanently bedridden, compensation is payable at the rate of one hundred dollars ($100.00) per month.
3. Total Disability Defined:
Any impairment of mind or body, which renders it impossible for the disabled person to follow continuously any substantial gainful occupation shall be deemed (in Articles III and IV of the War Risk Insurance Act) to be total disability (Treasury Decision 20, War Risk Regulation No. 11, 1918.)
4. How Compensation May Be Obtained:
a. At time of discharge, a soldier who is entitled to compensation under provisions heretofore explained, should be sure that his company or detachment commander, the medical officer conducting his physical examination, and the officer in charge of his discharge, are acquainted with his condition and that Treasury Department Form No. 526 is prepared, in his case.
b. In case a man should discover after and within one year after separation from the service that he has sustained an injury or contracted disease in the line of duty when employed in active service which may result in disability or death, but which did not disable him and of which he had no knowledge at the time of separation from the service, he should communicate the fact immediately to the Compensation Section of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, giving his full name, Army serial number if an enlisted man, rank or grade, and organization; the date and place of his discharge or separation from the service; and, if possible, the date of his injury or disability. He should at the same time request to be furnished a certificate to the fact that at the time of his separation from the service he was suffering from a wound, injury, or disease which is likely to result in death or disability. This certificate must be obtained within one year from the date of separation from the service, and in order to obtain it the man must submit to a medical examination by a physician designated by the Bureau of War Risk Insurance.
c. No compensation shall be payable for death or disability which does not occur prior to or within one year from date of separation from the service.
d. No compensation is payable for disability unless claim is filed within five years after the date of separation from the service.
e. Dismissal or dishonorable discharge from the service terminates all rights to any compensation.
f. In order to procure compensation for disability, the claimant shall submit to an examination by a medical officer of the United States. If he refuses to submit to such examination, his right to compensation ceases.
5. COMPENSATION FROM DIFFERENT INSURANCE:
Compensation is entirely separate and distinct from War Risk Insurance and should not be confused therewith.
IV. WAR RISK INSURANCE.
1. Premium Rate.
Because the Government bears all overhead expenses and the extra war hazard, the cost of War Risk Insurance is extremely low. The premium rate depends on the man's age, and for the full ten thousand dollars ($10,000.00) averages between six dollars ($6.00) and seven dollars ($7.00) per month.
In case of death of a person who holds ten thousand dollars ($10,000.00) War Risk Insurance, the Government will pay, so long as there are persons living who are entitled to receive the same, monthly installments of fifty-seven dollars and fifty cents ($57.50) each, for twenty (20) years, which, taking interest in account, aggregates thirteen thousand, eight hundred dollars ($13,800.00). The insurance is made payable only to those included in the "permitted class" namely, spouse, child, grandchild, parent, brother or sister, as defined in the War Risk Insurance Act.
In case of total permanent disability of the insured, these monthly installments of fifty-seven dollars and fifty cents ($57.50) each, will be paid to the disabled person throughout his life, even though he lives for more than twenty (20) years.
3. Continuance After Discharge:
a. Article IV, Section 404, of the War Risk Insurance Act and subsequent regulations from the Bureau of War Risk Insurance provide that the insurance held by a soldier while in the service may be continued in the same form, at the same rates, and with the same benefits for a period of five (5) years after the termination of the war as declared by the proclamation of the President.
b. If a man desires to continue his War Risk Insurance, it will be necessary to make payments of the monthly premiums directly to the Disbursing Clerk, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington. D. C. Check or money order should be made payable to the Treasurer of the United States. Every soldier, at time of discharge, will be supplied with printed instructions "Information Relative to Compensation and Continuance of War Risk Insurance," which will show the exact premium in each soldier's particular case for the next five years. Checks or money orders for monthly premiums should be sent to the Bureau on the first day of each month, or if more convenient, payment may be sent quarterly or annually in advance.
4. Conversion of Insurance:
Within five years after the termination of the war as declared by proclamation of the President, every man must apply to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C., for the conversion of his present policy into some other from of permanent Government Insurance. His present policy will lapse unless converted within that time. The present term insurance may be converted without physical examination into standard forms of Government Insurance, including Ordinary Life, Twenty-Payment Life, Endowment maturing at age of sixty-two (62), and other usual forms. The Government desires that all men continue to keep up their insurance after they return to civil life. If the present term insurance is permitted to lapse, the valuable right to convert it into standard forms of low rate Government Insurance will be lost. The new forms of insurance named above will cost approximately from 30 to 35% less than the same policy would cost in any commercial company.
a. All correspondence relating to War Risk Insurance should be addressed to "Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C.," and should always contain the following information:
First name, middle name, and last name, in full, no initials.
Grade and organization at the time of applying for insurance.
Army serial number.
Date of discharge or separation from the service.
b. Change of address of the insured, change of address of beneficiary, and change of beneficiary, should be reported as directed in paragraph (a) hereof.
V. VOCATIONAL TRAINING.
1. The Federal Board for Vocational Education:
a. The Federal Board for Vocational Education is established by Act of Congress to assist in providing for the future of disabled soldiers. The Federal Board offers to assist the disabled soldier in securing employment and to provide opportunities for further training in his vocation, or, when he cannot continue his previous vocation, to train him in a new vocation.
b. All disabled men who need assistance in securing employment and all who may be entitled to vocational training should report to the representatives of the Federal Board in the Camp Insurance Building 1129 W., Camp Grant, or communicate with the Federal Board for Vocational Education, Sixth and E. Streets, Washington, D. C., or with one of the Federal Board's branch offices in any of the following cities:
Chicago, Ill., 110 S. Dearborn St.
Boston, Mass., Room 433, Tremont Building.
New York City, Room 617, 280 Broadway.
Philadelphia, Pa., Pennsylvania Square Bldg., 1416 S. Pennsylvania Square.
Washington, D. C. Baltic Building, 606 F. Street, N. W.
Atlanta, Ga., Candler Building.
New Orleans, La., 822 Maison Blanche Annex.
Cincinnati, Ohio, 906-907 Mercantile Library Building.
St. Louis, Mo., 517-521 Chemical Building.
San Francisco, California.
2. How to Get Training:
a. Any soldier or sailor disabled not by reason of his own wilful misconduct, whose disability is severe enough to be really a handicap in securing employment, is eligible for training. For a disabled soldier or sailor to prove his eligibility, he must fill out Treasury Department Form No. 526, which is the application for cornpensation. This application will contain all necessary evidence to determine whether the man is eligible for training. This application may be delivered to any officer in charge of Vocational Training and Compensation Work, or it may be sent to any representative of the Federal Board, or to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Compensation Section.
3. Support While in Training:
a. The Federal Board for Vocational Training bears the entire cost of all training.
b. During the course of instruction, the Government will, in the case of a single man without dependants or a man required by his course of instruction to live apart from his dependents, pay him at least sixty-five dollars ($65.00) per month. In the case of non-commissioned officers, whose pay for the last month of active service was more than sixty-five dollars ($65.00) they will receive the same pay. In the case of a married man, he and his wife together will receive seventy-five dollars ($75.00) per month from the Government, provided they live together during the course of instruction. In case they live apart, the Government will pay the man sixtyfive dollars ($65.00) and the wife thirty dollars ($30.00) per month.
c. Where a disabled man needs to be trained for an occupation, the Federal Board will train him for any occupation which he desires to follow, provided his previous experience and ability are such that he can do successful work in the occupation, and provided it is possible for the Board to secure anywhere, in school, shop, farm, or office, or elsewhere, the facilities necessary to train him successfully for the occupation. (Mon. No. 1, Fed. Bd. for Voc. Ed., 1918).