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United States Navy Decorations, Medals and Ribbons

From July 1947 All Hands Magazine

A summary of the regulations governing the issuance and wearing of awards
now designated for naval personnel

(For specific instructions on individual medals, see BuPers Manual.)

Since the Government presented a medal to George Washington in 1776, to commemorate the evacuation of Boston by the British, decorations and ribbons have become firmly established in U. S. military tradition.

Decorations, medals and ribbons represent the thanks of the nation for services rendered in its honor. They commemorate entire wars, single campaigns, individual action and group and personal heroism.

The wearing of decorations upon the uniform is a privilege and honor reserved to the military man. Like the uniform, they are worn with pride. And, like the uniform, they must be worn correctly to have true meaning.

In these pages will be found a summary of the existing U. S. medals, decorations and ribbons, together with some foreign decorations, which may be awarded to naval personnel. Significance of the decorations is defined, and general regulations governing their award are stated. Included, also, is a transcript of the new Chapter XII, Uniform Regulations, which outlines in detail the proper wearing of decorations, medals and ribbons. There is, too, a full-color picture of the awards made to naval personnel, in the order of their precedence and appearing as they should when worn.

IMAGES

Medal
of Honor
(Width of actual medal: 2 inches)
Navy Cross
(Width of actual medal: 11/2 inches)
Distinguished
Service Medal
(Width of actual medal: 11/2 inches)
Silver Star
Medal
(Width of actual medal: 11/2 inches)

MEDAL OF HONOR

AWARDED TO: Any person who, while in the naval service of the United States, shall, in action involving actual combat with the enemy, or in the line of his profession, distinguish himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty and without detriment to the mission. Awarded for combat or non-combat action.

TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 5. years of date of distinguished act, and recommended within 3 years of act or service.

GRATUITY: $2 per month from date of distinguished act—to enlisted men only.

AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 21 December 1861; act of 3 Mar 1901; act of 3 Mar 1915; act of 4 Feb 1919; and act of 7 Aug 1942, which supersedes previous acts.

MEDAL OF HONOR (1917-18)
No longer awarded

AWARDED TO: Any person who, while in the naval service of the United States, shall, in action involving actual conflict with the enemy distinguish himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty and without detriment to the mission. Awarded for combat action only.

TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 5 years from date of distinguished act, and recommended within 3 years of act or service.

GRATUITY: $2 per month from date of distinguished act—to enlisted men only.

AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 4 Feb 1919.

NAVY CROSS

AWARDED TO: Any person serving in any capacity with the naval service of the United States who distinguishes himself by extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy. Awarded for combat action only.

TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 5 years from date of distinguished act and recommended within 3 years of act or service.
GRATUITY: $2 per month from date of distinguished act—to enlisted men only.

AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 4 Feb 1919, and act of 7 Aug 1942.

DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL

AWARDED TO: Any person who, while serving in any capacity with the Navy of the United States, since 6 Apr 1917, has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. Awarded for combat or noncombat action.

TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 5 years from date of distinguished service, and recommended within 3 years of service.

GRATUITY: $2 per month from date of distinguished act, for enlisted men only.

AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 4 Feb 1919, and act of 7 Aug 1942.

SILVER STAR MEDAL

AWARDED TO: Any person who, while serving in any capacity with the Navy of the United States, since 6 Dec 1941, has distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity in action, not sufficient to justify the award of Medal of Honor or Navy Cross. Also cases of persons previously submitted, recommended for Medal of Honor or Navy Cross or Distinguished Service Medal, and who were turned down, may be reconsidered, all cases to be considered on records now in Navy Department. Awarded for combat action only.

TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 5 years from date of distinguished act or service, and be recommended within 3 years of act or service, except when awarded in cases previously submitted and turned down for award of Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal, or Navy Cross.

GRATUITY: $2 per month from date of distinguished act, subsequent to 6 Dec 1941, for enlisted men only. Retroactive cases to be decided later.

AUTHORIZED BY Act of 7 Aug 1942.

LEGION OF MERIT

AWARDED TO: Personnel of the armed forces of the United States and the Philippines; and personnel of the armed forces of friendly foreign nations who, since 8 Sept 1939, shall have distinguished themselves by exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services. For United States Armed Forces, the Legion Merit is awarded without reference to degree, and for Legion this purpose the of Merit
medal and ribbon of the fourth degree is used.

Others are awarded the Legion of Merit in four different degrees—Chief Commander, Commander, Officer, and Legionnaire. Awarded for combat or noncombat action.

GRATUITY: No gratuity provided.

AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 20 July 1942, and Executive Order No. 9260 of 29 Oct 1942.

DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS

AWARDED TO: Any person who, while serving in any capacity with the Air Corps of the Army, National Guard and Organized Reserves, or with United States Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, subsequent to 6 Apr 1917, has distinguished himself by heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial flight. Members of military, naval, or air forces of foreign governments while serving with the United States are also eligible. Awarded for combat or noncombat action.
TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 3 years from date of distinguished act or service, and recommended within 2 years from date of act or service.
GRATUITY: $2 per month from date of distinguished act or service, for enlisted men only.
AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 2 July 1926, Executive Order No. 4576 of 28 Jan 1927, and Executive Order No. 7786 of 8 Jan 1938.
NAVY AND MARINE CORPS
MEDAL
AWARDED TO: Any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States Navy or Marine Corps, including Reserves, shall have, since 6 Dec 1941, distinguished himself or herself by heroism not involving actual conflict with an enemy, or to any person to whom the Secretary of the Navy has formerly awarded a letter of commendation for heroism, regardless of date, subject to approval of the Board of Decorations and Med-
28
als. Awarded for noncombat action only.
TIME LIMITS for recommendations or awards: Must be issued within 5 years from date of distinguished act or service, and be recommended within 3 years of act or service, except when awarded in lieu of a letter of commendation previously awarded for heroism.
GRATUITY: $2 medal: 11/4 inches)
f actual
per month from
date of distinguished act, subsequent to 6 Dec 1941. Retroactive cases to be decided later.
AUTHORIZED BY: Act of 7 Aug 1942.
BRONZE STAR MEDAL
AWARDED TO Any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States on or after 7 Dec 1941, distin guishes, or has distinguished himself by heroism or meritorious achievement or services not (Width of actual involving partici- medal: 13i inches) pation in aerial
flights in connection with military or naval operations against the enemy of the United States.
GRATUITY: No gratuity authorized. AUTHORIZED BY: Executive Order No. 9419 of 4 Feb 1944.
AIR MEDAL
AWARDED TO: Any person who, while serving with Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States, in any capacity, subsequent to 8 Sept 1939, distinguishes himself by meritorious achievement while participating in an aerial flight. Awarded for combat or noncombat ac-(Width of actual tion.
medal: GRATUITY: No
1 11/16 inches) gratuity author-
ized.
AUTHORIZED BY: Executive Order No. 9158 of 11 May 1942 and General Order No. 175 of 27 June 1942.
COMMENDATION RIBBON
All personnel of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard who received an individual Letter of Commendation signed by the Secretary of the Navy, Commander-in-Chief United States
Fleet, Commander-in-Chief Pacific Fleet, or Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet for an act of heroism or services performed between 6 Dec 1941 and 11. Jan 1944 are authorized to wear the Commendation Ribbon.
All personnel of the above services who subsequent to 11 Jan 1944 shall have received such a commendation signed by the Secretary of the Navy or other delegated authorities, are authorized to wear the Commendation Ribbon, provided such Letter of Commendation contains in the text such authorization, signifying the desire of the issuing officer to accord the privilege.
GRATUITY: No gratuity authorized. AUTHORIZED BY: Alnav 11 of 11 Jan 1944.
PURPLE HEART MEDAL
AWARDED TO: Persons wounded in action against the enemy of the United States, while serving with the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States, or as a result of act of such enemy, if wound necessitated treatment by medical officer. Also awarded posthumously to the next of kin of service personnel killed in action or who die as a direct result of wounds received
in action against an enemy of the United States, or as a result of an act of such enemy. For the purpose of awarding the Purple Heart, a wound is defined as an injury to any part of the body from an outside force, element, or agent sustained as the result of a hostile
act of the enemy or while in the face of the enemy. Awarded for combat action only.
GRATUITY: No gratuity authorized.
AUTHORIZED BY Executive Order No. 9277 of 3 Dec 1942, and General Order No. 186 of 21 Jan 1943.
SPECIALLY MERITORIOUS
MEDAL
No longer issued
AWARDED TO: Officers and men of the Navy and Marine Corps who rendered specially meritorious service other than in battle, during the War with Spain. Awarded for noncombat action only.
GRATUITY: No gratuity authorized.
AUTHORTZED BY: Act of 3 Mar 1901.
PRESIDENTIAL UNIT
CITATION
AWARDED TO: Any ship, aircraft or
Burgee Pennant ALL HANDS
GOLD SCARLET
Distinguished
Flying Cross
(Width of actual
medal:
1 11/16 inches)
Navy and
Marine Corps
Medal
Bronze Star
Medal
Air Medal
Purple Heart
Medal
(Width of actual medal: 1% inches)
naval units, any Marine aircraft detachment or higher unit, for outstanding performance in action on or after 16 Oct 1941.
GRATUITY: No gratuity authorized.
AUTHORIZED BY: Executive Order No. 9050 of 6 Feb 1942, and General Order No. 187 of 3 Feb 1943.
NAVY UNIT
COMMENDATION
Awarded by the Secretary of the Navy to any ships, aircraft, detachment or other unit in the Naval service of the United States for outstanding heroism in action against the ,enemy, but not sufficient to justify the award of the Presidential Unit Citation; or for extremely meritorious service not in combat, but in support of military operations.
GRATUITY: No gratuity authorized. AUTHORIZED BY: Alnav 224 of 18 Dec 1944.
LIFE SAVING MEDALS
Awarded by the Treasury Department
Gold Life-saving Medals may be awarded to those persons who, by extreme and heroic daring, have en dangered their lives in saving or endeavoring to save lives from the perils of the sea in waters over which the United States has jurisdiction, or upon American vessels.
Silver Life-saving Medals may be awarded to those persons who, in cases not sufficiently distinguished to deserve the gold medal, have endangered their lives in saving or endeavoring to save lives from the perils of the sea in waters over which the United States has jurisdiction, or upon American vessels.
SERVICE REQUIRED: The saving of
life or giving of succor does not in itself entitle a person to a medal. The medals can be given in only those instances in which exceptional bravery has been displayed or in which unusual effort or some great personal sacrifice has been made. The saving of persons from drowning in waters wholly within a State and not forming a part of the navigable waters of the United States or in small inland streams, ponds, pools, etc., does not entitle rescuer to medals.
EVIDENCE REQUIRED: Satisfactory evidence of the services performed must be filed in each case. This evidence should be in the form of affidavits made by eyewitnesses of good repute and standing testifying of their own knowledge. The opinion of witnesses that the person for whom an award is sought imperiled his life or made signal exertions is not sufficient, but the affidavits must set forth in detail all facts and occurences tending to show clearly in what manner and to what extent life was risked or signal exertions made, so that the Department may judge for itself as to the degree of merit involved. The precise locality, whether within the waters over which the United States has jurisdiction or upon an American vessel, the date, time of day, nature of
JULY 1947
the weather, condition of the sea, the names of all persons present when practicable, the names of all persons rendering assistance, and every pertinent circumstance should be stated.
To WHOM RECOMMENDATIONS ADDRESSED: Recommendations for lifesaving medals to be awarded under the provisions of these regulations will be addressed to the Secretary of the Navy, who will take appropriate measures to cause their transmission to the Secretary of the Treasury. Recommendations and affidavits to be submitted in duplicate; the original to be forwarded by the Navy Department to the Secretary of the Treasury, and copy to be retained for the Navy Department files.
NAVAL RESERVE SPECIAL
COMMENDATION RIBBON
This ribbon is awarded to those officers of the Organized Reserve who have officially commanded in a meritorious manner for a period of 4 years between 1 Jan 1930 and 7 Dec 1941, an organized battalion, squadron, or separate division (not part of a battalion) of the Naval Reserve, or an organized battalion or squadron of the Marine Corps Reserve, and have had a total service in the Reserve of not less than 10 years.
AUTHORIZED BY: Alnav 180 of 16 Apr 1946.
GOOD CONDUCT MEDALS
Good Conduct Medals and pins will be issued by the Bureau of Naval Personnel. A medal will be issued as the first award. A pin, to be worn on the suspension ribbon of the medal will be issued for each subsequent award. A bronze star three-sixteenths (3/16) of an inch in diameter shall be worn on the ribbon bar of the medal for each pin awarded. The wearing of the ribbon bar and of bronze stars thereon will be authorized by commanding officers upon fulfillment of the necessary requirements, appropriate entries to that effect will be made on page nine of the service record, and recommendation for issuance of the medal or pin will be forwarded to the Bureau.
1. Eligibility requirements for active service terminating on or after 15 Aug 1945:
(a) Service—any three (3) years of continuous active service as an enlisted person in the regular Navy, Naval Reserve, or as an inductee. Service during this period in either a commissioned or warrant rank will not be included in computing time served, but will not be considered as an interruption in computing enlisted service.
(b) Conduct—within the above three (3) year period, no convictions by court martial including deck court, not more than one lesser offense, no mark in conduct less than 3.0, an average mark in conduct of not less than 3 8, and a final average of not less than 3.5 in proficiency in rating. No person shall be deprived of a med al or pin because of disciplinary action taken prior or subsequent to this three (3) year period. When a person is convicted by general court martial, a new three (3) year period shall begin with the date of restoration to duty, even though on a probationary basis; if convicted by a summary court martial, with the date of approval of sentence by the Immediate Superior in Command or the Senior Officer Present; if convicted by deck court, with the date of approval by the Convening Authority. The date of commission of an offense tried by court martial will be considered as the date on which the period ends.
2. The eligibility requirements listed in paragraph 1 above apply only to active service or enlistments (including involuntary extensions) terminating on or after 15 Aug 1945 and are not retroactive to enlistments or active service terminating prior to that date. For active service or enlistments terminating on or after 1 July 1931 and prior to 15 Aug 1945 good conduct awards will be made in accordance with the requirements as to service and marks in effect at that time, which were as follow:
(a) Service—Regular Navy.
(1) For first enlistment or minority enlistment, and if extended for two (2) years, the last four (4) years in lieu thereof, may be considered provided first period of service would have terminated with an honorable discharge.
(2) For second or subsequent enlistment or extensions of 3 or 4 years.
(3) For a total of four (4) years served in extension of an enlistment.
(4) In a six (6) year enlistment, for first three (3) years and also for remaining period of the enlistment, provided enlistment terminates with an honorable discharge.
(5) Service in extensions of one (1) or two (2) years (except as indicated in (1) and (3) above) or for enlistments terminated prior to expiration (except when discharged for convenience of the Government within 3 months of expiration of enlistments) will not be considered for good conduct awards.
(b) Conduct—All classes.
Within any one of the above periods, a clear record (no offense or qualifying remarks entered in service record), and with a final average of 3.5 in proficiency in rating. No person shall be deprived of a medal or pin because of disciplinary action taken prior or subsequent to one of the above periods, except by conviction for an offense committed in a prior enlistment in which a medal or pin had been previously held to have been earned but not bestowed.
3. For service terminating prior to 1 July 1931, good conduct awards will be made in accordance with the requirements as to marks and recommendations in effect at the time of the period of service under consideration and in accordance with service requirements as follow:
(a) Prior to 3 Mar 1899; for second
29
enlistment under continuous service.
(b) From 3 Mar 1899 to 28 Sept 1914, both dates inclusive; for eight (8) years' continuous service. From 27 Aug 1912 to 29 Sept 1914, first enlistments terminating during this period.
(c) From 29 Sept. 1914 through 30 June 1921:
(1) For a second or subsequent enlistment, provided a prior enlistment was terminated with honorable discharge by reason of expiration of enlistment. Continuous service is not required.
(2) For a second enlistment changed to duration of war; and for an extension of four (4) years (or extensions aggregating four (4) years) changed to duration of war under AlNav 196 of 11 July 1919, provided that a prior enlistment shall have been terminated with honorable discharge, and further provided that said extension shall have been an extension of an enlistment ending between 3 Feb 1917 and 11 Nov 1918.
(3) For honorable discharge from not less than 2 year service in the Regular Navy, following transfer from the United States Naval Reserve, under AINav 196 of 11 July 1919, for the purpose of completion in the Regular Navy of the period of enrollment, provided that a prior enlistment shall have been terminated with honorable discharge. Continuous service is not required.
(4) For an extension of four (4) years or extensions aggregating four (4) years, provided basic enlistment would have been terminated with honorable discharge.
(d) For service terminating on or after 1 July 1921:
(1) For first enlistment or for minority enlistment, provided the enlistment is extended or upon reenlistment within three (3) months.
(2) For first enlistment if honorably discharged from service begun in the Naval Reserve Force, and continued in the Regular Navy by transfer, provided that the service in the Navy is of not less than 2 years duration and that reenlistment is under continuous service.
(3) For a second or subsequent enlistment, previous enlistment having terminated with honorable discharge. Continuous service is not necessary.
(4) Upon discharge from an extension of four (4) years (or a total of four (4) years) of a first or other enlistment, provided that basic enlistment would have terminated with an honorable discharge.
(5) For a constructive enlistment of four (4) years (or three (3) years and nine (9) months) active duty in the Regular Navy and continued in the Naval Reserve (classes F-3, F-4, or F-5), or where a retired man is recalled and completes not less than three (3) years and nine (9) months active duty.
(e) Good Conduct awards are made to those who enlisted or who reenlisted on or after 7 Apr 1917; upon the date of the execution of oath of first
30 permanent commission or warrant in the Navy of those officers who shall have served a total of not less than three (3) years and nine (9) months in enlisted and either commissioned or warrant status.
AUTHORIZED BY: Directive of SecNav, 17 Feb 1870.
NAVAL RESERVE MEDAL
The Naval Reserve Medal may be awarded by the Chief of Naval Personnel to any officer or enlisted man of the Naval Reserve who completes, or has completed, 10 years' honorable service in the Naval Reserve, Naval Reserve Force, National Naval Volunteers, or federally recognized Naval Militia in an active-duty or inactive-duty status; and for each additional 10 years of such honorable service, a bronze star may, be worn on the ribbon.
In time of war or national emergency, members of the Naval Reserve shall not become eligible for award of a Naval Reserve Medal until they report for active duty.
Application for the medal shall be submitted via the commanding officer if the applicant is on active duty; otherwise application may be made directly to the Chief of Naval Personnel. The application, in letter form, must state the period or periods of service upon which the application for the medal and the authority to wear the bronze star (if entitled) is based.
The commanding officer shall state in his forwarding endorsement whether or not the applicant's service has been honorable in his present assignment.
Present holders of the Naval Reserve Medal are authorized to wear bronze stars, to which entitled, without specific authorization.
AUTHORIZED BY: SecNav, 12 Sept 1938.
MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE
BATTLE OF MANILA BAY
(DEWEY MEDAL)
This medal is issued to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic Squadron of the United States under the command of Commodore George Dewey on 1 May 1898. These ships are listed in change 13 of Part A, Chapter 1, of the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual of 1925. (Act of 3 June 1898.)
MEDAL COMMEMORATING NAVAL
ENGAGEMENTS IN THE WEST
INDIES (SAMPSON MEDAL)
This medal is issued to officers and men of the Navy and Marine Corps who participated in the naval and other engagements in the waters of the West Indies and on the shores of Cuba during the War with Spain, deemed by the Secretary of the Navy to be of sufficient importance to deserve commemoration. (Act of 3 Mar 1901.)
PEARY POLAR EXPEDITION MEDAL
(1908-1909)
This medal was established for
award to certain individuals in recognition of their efforts and services as members of the Peary Polar Expedition of 1908-1909, in the field of science and for the cause of Polar exploration by aiding in the discovery of the North Pole by Admiral Peary.
AUTHORIZED BY: Act of Congress approved 28 Jan 1944.
MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE
FIRST TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT IN
THE U. S. NAVAL FLYING BOAT
"NC-4" IN MAY 1919
This medal was established for award to members of the NC-4 for the extraordinary achievement in making the first successful transatlantic flight in the United States naval flying boat NC-4 in May 1919. (Act of 9 Feb 1929.)
MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE
BYRD ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION
OF 1928-30
This medal was established for award to the officers and men of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition to express the high admiration in which the Congress and the American people hold their heroic and undaunted services in connection with the scientific investigations and extraordinary aerial explorations of the Antarctic Continent. (Act of 23 May 1930.)
MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE
SECOND BYRD ANTARCTIC EXPE-
DITION OF 1933-35
This medal was established for award to the deserving personnel of the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition that spent the winter night at Little America or who commanded either one of the expedition ships throughout the expedition, to express the high admiration in which the Congress and the American people hold their heroic and undaunted accomplishments for science, unequaled in the history of Polar exploration. (Act of 2 June 1936.)
UNITED STATES ANTARCTIC EXPE-
DITION MEDAL (1939-41)
This medal was established for award to the members of the United States Antarctic Expedition of 193941 in recognition of their valuable services to the Nation in the field of Polar exploration and science.
AUTHORIZED BY Act of Congress approved 24 Sept 1945.
SERVICE MEDALS
CIVIL WAR MEDAL
This medal is issued to officers and enlisted men of the Navy who served in the Navy during the Civil War, between 15 Apr 1861 and 9 Apr 1865.
EXPEDITIONARY MEDAL
(Navy and Marine Corps, initial award 1874)
The medal will be awarded to the officers and enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps who shall have actually landed on foreign territory
ALL HANDS
and engaged in operations against armed opposition, or operated under circumstances which, after full consideration, shall be deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded.
No person in the Navy or Marine Corps service is entitled to more than one Expeditionary Medal (either Navy or Marine Corps). Participation in more than one expedition will be recognized by the issue of bronze stars (one star for each expedition in excess of one), to be worn on the ribbon of the Expeditionary Medal.
All officers and men of the Navy and Marine Corps who, under the above-mentioned conditions, took part in certain authorized operations listed in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual between the dates designated, may submit to the Chief of Naval Personnel or the Commandant, United States Marine Corps, respectively, through official channels, applications for the above medal. The applications should include the names and dates of the expeditions and a statement to the effect that the applicant actually served ashore as a member of a landing party during the period for which the medal is claimed.
Navy and Marine Corps personnel Who served in the defense of Wake Island 7 Dec to 22 Dec 1941, will wear a Silver "W" on the service ribbon of the appropriate Expeditionary Medal.
SPANISH CAMPAIGN MEDAL
This medal is issued to all persons who were in the naval service between 20 Apr 1898 and 10 Dec 1898.
PHILIPPINE CAMPAIGN MEDAL
This medal is issued to officers and enlisted men of the Navy who served in the Navy in Philippine waters during the period 4 Feb 1899 and 15 Sept 1906 and were attached to certain vessels between designated dates.
CHINA RELIEF EXPEDITON
(1900-1901)
This medal is issued to officers and enlisted men of the Navy who served in the Navy in Chinese waters during the period 5 Apr 1900 to 27 May 1901 and were attached to certain vessels between designated dates.
CUBAN PACIFICATION MEDAL
This medal is issued to all officers and enlisted men of the Navy who served ashore in Cuba during the period 12 Sept 1906 to 1 Apr 1909, or who were attached to certain vessels between designated dates.
NICARAGUAN CAMPAIGN MEDAL
(1912)
This medal, is issued to officers and enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps who served in Nicaragua or on board certain vessels during the period 29 July to 14 Nov 1912.
MEXICAN SERVICE MEDAL
This medal is issued to all officers and enlisted men of the Navy and
JULY 1947 Marine Corps who served on shore at Vera Cruz from 21 Apr to 23 Apr 1914 or on board certain vessels between designated dates.
HAITIAN CAMPAIGN MEDAL
(1915)
This medal is issued to any officer or enlisted man of the Navy or Marine Corps who served in Haiti during the period 9 July to 6 Dec 1915, or any part of such period; also officers and enlisted men who were attached to certain vessels between designated dates.
DOMINICAN CAMPAIGN MEDAL
This medal is issued to commemorate the services performed by the personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps during the operations in Santo Domingo from 5 May to 4 Dec 1916; also the officers and enlisted men who were attached to certain vessels between designated dates.
VICTORY MEDAL
(World War I)
This medal is issued to all persons in the naval service who served on active duty between 6 Apr 1917 and 11 Nov 1918, or who entered the naval service on or after 12 Nov 1918, and prior to 30 Mar 1920, and served not less than 10 days on shore in northern Russia or Siberia or who were attached to one of the following vessels: Albany, Brooklyn, Des Moines, Eagle No. 1, Eagle No. 2, Eagle No. 3, New Orleans, Sacramento, South Dakota, or Yankton.
A service clasp with the duty inscribed thereon, to be worn on the ribbon of the medal, will be authorized for each person who performed certain duties between designated dates.
A bronze star, three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, will be placed on the service ribbon in lieu of clasp authorized. When any person has been commended as the result of the recommendation of the board of awards by the Secretary of the Navy for performance of duty not justifying the award of a Medal of Honor, a Distinguished Service Medal, or a Navy Cross, he shall wear a silver for each such citation.
A bronze Maltese cross, three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, will be placed on the service ribbon for those officers and men of the Marine Corps and Medical Corps, United States Navy, who were attached to the American Expeditionary Forces in France any time between 6 Apr 1917 and 11 Nov 1918, and who are not entitled to any clasp.
ARMY OF OCCUPATION OF
GERMANY MEDAL (1918-23)
The act of 21 Nov 1941 provides: "That the Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed to procure and issue an Army of Occupation of Germany Medal of appropriate design, including suitable appurtenances, to be issued to each officer and enlisted man of the armed forces, or to the nearest of kin surviving of those deceased, who served in Germany or Austria-Hungary during the period of occupation at any time during the inclusive period from 12 Nov 1918 to 11 July 1923: Provided, That such medals and appurtenances shall not be issued in cases where the person has, during or subsequent to such service, been dismissed or discharged other than honorably from the service, or deserted."
Qualification for the Army of Occupation of Germany Medal is service ashore in Germany or Austria-Hungary between 12 Nov 1918 and 11 July 1923. A member of the naval service attached to and serving on board a vessel of the United States Navy in a port of Germany or Austria-Hungary is not entitled to this medal unless he was detached from the ship for temporary duty ashore by competent authority.
HAITIAN CAMPAIGN MEDAL
(1919-20)
This medal will be issued to the officers and men of the Navy and Marine Corps who participated in the operations in Haiti from 1 Apr 1919 to 15 June 1920, and any officer or enlisted man of the Navy or Marine Corps who served in Haiti during this period is entitled to this medal, as are also the officers and enlisted men who were attached to certain vessels between designated dates.
SECOND NICARAGUAN CAM-
PAIGN MEDAL
This medal is issued to commemorate the services performed by the personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps during the operations in Nicaragua between 27 Aug 1926 and 2 Jan 1933.
The award will be made to the officers and enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps who served on shore in Nicaragua between the dates mentioned, and to the officers and enlisted men who were attached to and serving on board the vessels listed in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual between the dates designated.
YANGTZE SERVICE MEDAL
This medal is issued to commemorate the services performed by the personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps who served on shore at Shanghai or in the valley of the Yangtze River in a landing force during the periods between 3 Sept 1926 and 21 Oct 1927; and from 1 Mar 1930 to 31 Dec 1932; and also by the officers and enlisted men who were attached to the vessels listed in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual between the dates designated.
CHINA SERVICE MEDAL
This medal is issued to commemorate the services performed by the personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps during operations in China from 7 July 1937 to 7 Sept 1939. The award will be made to the officers and enlisted men who participated in
31
MAP OF AREA CAMPAIGN MEDAL THEATERS
ii.11111hrilk
,
-
IIIIIMIIM
I
IIIIIAMIN
III'
AMERICAN
7 Dec 41-to2 Mar '46
41 to 2.
20
10•
ASIATIC-PACIFIC AREA 7 Dec 41 to 2 Mar '46 I I
EUROPEAN-AFRICAN
MIDDLE EASTERN-
AREA
7 Dec '41 to 8 Nov 45
60' 80' 100' 120' 140' 160' 180' 160' 140' 120' 100' 80' 60' 40' 20' 0' 20' 40' 6C
these operations and to the officers and enlisted men serving on board the vessels listed in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual between the dates designated. The period of eligibility for this medal has been extended to include service in China from 2 Sept 1945 to a date to be determined later. Ships and units eligible under the extension will be published in a forthcoming General Order.
AMERICAN DEFENSE SERVICE
MEDAL
This medal will be awarded to all persons in the naval service who served on active duty between 8 Sept 1939 and 7 Dec 1941, both dates inclusive.
Naval Reserve personnel on training duty under orders must have served at least 10 days in such duty. Persons ordered to active duty for physical examination and subsequently disqualified are not entitled to this award.
A service clasp, "Fleet" or "Base," is authorized to be worn on the ribbon of the medal by each person who performed duties as set forth below. No person is entitled to more than one such clasp.
(a) Fleet.—For service on the high seas while regularly attached to any vessel or aircraft squadron of the Atlantic, Pacific, or Asiatic Fleets; to include vessels of the Naval Transportation Service and vessels operating directly under the Chief of Naval Operations.
Reserve officers ordered to ships of the fleet for training duty ( cruise) and officers serving on board ships for temporary additional duty from shore stations are not considered "regularly attached" and are not entitled to the fleet clasp.
(b) Base.—For service on shore at bases and naval stations outside the continental limits of the United States.
Duty in Alaska is considered outside the continental limits of the United States.
A bronze star, three-sixteenths of
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an inch in diameter, will be worn on the service ribbon in lieu of any clasp authorized.
A bronze "A" will be worn on the service ribbon by personnel of vessels attached to and operating with the Atlantic Fleet in actual or potential belligerent contact with the Axis forces at any time between 22 June 1941 and 7 Dec 1941. See list of vessels with dates eligible in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual.
AREA CAMPAIGN MEDALS
American, European-African-Mid-
dle Eastern and Asiatic-Pacific
campaign medals
These medals may be awarded to members of the land and naval forces of the United States, including the Women's Reserve of the United States Naval Reserve, and to members of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps whose service during periods designated below under the appropriate medals, meets the requirements set forth in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual.
For the purposes of this order, the Territory of Alaska shall be considered as outside the continental limits of the United States.
The geographical definitions of the respective areas are defined as follow:
American Area
(7 Dec 1941 to 2 Mar 1946, both dates
inclusive)
EAST BOUNDARY: From the North Pole, south along the 75th meridian west longitude to the 77th parallel north latitude, thence southeast through Davis Strait to the intersection of the 40th parallel north latitude, and the 35th meridian west longitude, thence south along that meridian to the 10th parallel north latitude, thence southeast to the intersection of the Equator and the 20th meridian west longitude, thence along the 20th meridian west longitude to the South Pole.
WEST BOUNDARY: From the North Pole, south along the 141st meridian west longitude to the east boundary of Alaska, thence south and southeast along the Alaska boundary to the Pacific Ocean, thence south along the 130th meridian to its intersection with the 30th parallel north latitude, thence southwest to the intersection of the Equator and the 100th meridian west longitude, thence south along the 100th meridian west longitude to the South Pole.
European-African-Middle Eastern
Area
(7 Dec 1941 to 8 Nov 1945, both dates
inclusive)
EAST BOUNDARY: From the North Pole, south along the 60th meridian east longitude to its intersection with the eastern border of Iran, thence south along that border to the Gulf of Oman and the intersection of the 60th meridian east longitude, thence south along the 60th meridian east longitude to the South Pole.
WEST BOUNDARY: Coincident with the east boundary of the American area.
Asiatic-Pacific Area
(7 Dec 1941 to 2 Mar 1946, both dates
inclusive)
EAST BOUNDARY: Coincident with the west boundary of the American area.
WEST BOUNDARY: Coincident with the east boundary of the EuropeanAfrican-Middle Eastern area.
WORLD WAR II VICTORY
MEDAL
This medal may be awarded to members of the armed forces of the United States or of the Government of the Philippine Islands who served on active duty in World War II at any time between 7 Dec 1941 and 31 Dec 1946, both dates inclusive.
NAVY OCCUPATION SERVICE
MEDAL
This medal may be issued to personnel of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard who shall have participated in the occupation of certain territories of the enemies of the United States during World War II. Regulations governing this award relative to areas, organizations; units, ships, and personal eligibility will be promulgated in a Navy Department General Order at a later date.
PHILIPPINE DEFENSE RIBBON
This ribbon was established by the Philippine Commonwealth and authorized to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who served in the defense of the Philippines during the period 7 Dec 1941 to 15 June 1942.
PHILIPPINE LIBERATION
RIBBON
This ribbon was established by the Philippine Commonwealth and authorized to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who participated in the operations in the pre-
ALL HANDS
scribed Philippine area resulting in the liberation of the Philippines during the period 17 Oct 1944 to 3 Sept 1945.
PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE
RIBBON
This ribbon was established by the President of the Philippine Republic and authorized to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who were on active duty status in the Philippine Territory on 4 July 1946.
GUNNERY MEDALS
EDWARD TRENCHARD MEDAL
This medal is awarded annually on 1 July to the set of three turret pointers attaining the highest merit for turret guns at short-range battle practice.
KNOX GUN-POINTER MEDAL
The Knox gun-pointer medals are awarded annually by the Knox Trophy Foundation to the set of gun pointers making the highest merit for guns at short-range battle practice.
SMALL ARMS MEDALS AND
BADGES
NAVY DISTINGUISHED MARKSMAN
GOLD BADGE
This badge is awarded to individuals who have won three medals in either or both the national rifle matches, or who have won two medals in the national rifle matches and a place medal in either force or fleet rifle match.
NAVY DISTINGUISHED PISTOL
SHOT'S GOLD BADGE
This badge is awarded for similar accomplishments as above in equivalent pistol matches.
NAVY EXPERT RIFLEMAN'S MEDAL
This medal is awarded for attaining qualification as expert with either the rifle or carbine in prescribed courses.
NAVY EXPERT PISTOL SHOT'S
MEDAL
This medal is awarded for attaining qualification as expert with either the .45 caliber pistol or .38 caliber revolver in prescribed courses.
(NOTE. — Detailed regulations for the above four awards will be found in ch. 19 of the Landing Force Manual, as will regulations for the Fleet Rifleman's and Fleet Pistol Shot's Badges, which do not have equivalent ribbons.)
MARINE CORPS AWARDS
(In Addition to Navy Awards)
U. S. MARINE CORPS BREVET MEDAL
(No longer awarded)
This medal was awarded to the holder of a commission issued by the President and conferred by the Senate for distinguished service in the presence of the enemy. It was prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy
JULY /947
on 7 June 1921, and ranks immediately after the Congressional Medal of Honor. Brevet commissions were conferred upon 23 Marine Corps officers in the Mexican War, Civil War. Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and the Boxer hostilities of 1900.
MARINE CORPS GOOD CONDUCT
MEDAL
Effective 10 Dec 1945, and retroactive to current service-record books as of that date, the following regulations will govern the awarding of Good Conduct Medals and bars:
(1) Service—Same as for the Navy.
(2) Conduct Requirements—Same as for Navy except that applicant is allowed two commanding officers' punishments, and markings in service record book not considered under requirement for award.
NOTE: By the term "current Service-Record Book" is meant the books still open and includes the period of service covered by that book only. Entries of previous service in this book are not considered.
ORGANIZED MARINE CORPS
RESERVE MEDAL
To be eligible, one must attend with an organized unit of the reserve for 14 days annual field training period each year for 4 consecutive years; must attend at least 38 drills yearly for 4 consecutive years, and in the case of officers, must have received no unsatisfactory fitness reports, or, in the case of enlisted men, must be awarded a final average service record marking of 4.5 or over upon discharge. (The medal was authorized by the Secretary of the Navy on 19 Feb 1939.)
MARINE CORPS RESERVE RIBBON
This ribbon is awarded to any member of the Marine Corps Reserve who shall have completed 10 years honorable service in any Class or combinaion of Classes of the Marine Corps Reserve, and whose subsequent service, if any, is satisfactory, except as noted below:
Service on active duty, except training duty, and service by which a Reservist qualifies or has qualified for the Organized Marine Corps Reserve Medal, may not be counted in computing the ten years required to qualify for the Marine Corps Reserve Ribbon.
No person will be eligible for this award who was a member of the Marine Corps Reserve in time of war and who did not serve on active duty during the course of the war.
For each additional award for ten years of such honorable service, a bronze star may be worn on the Marine Corps Reserve Ribbon.
COAST GUARD AWARDS
(In addition to Navy Awards)
Medals and devices worn by Coast Guard personnel are awarded in accordance with Coast Guard regulations.
FOREIGN DECORATIONS
Awards tendered to personnel by foreign governments must be approved by existing law and the Navy Department before final acceptance. In the absence of proper authority, where refusal would cause embarrassment to the power conferring it, such award may be accepted subject to approval by an Act of Congress and should be forwarded to the Bureau of Naval Personnel for disposition until acceptance becomes legal.
MEDAL OF HONOR ROLL
Public Act No. 56, approved 27 Apr 1916, established in the War Department and in the Navy Department, respectively, a roll, designated as "the Army and Navy Medal of Honor Roll."
Upon written application made to the Secretary of the proper department, and subject to the conditions and requirements hereinafter contained, the name of each surviving person who has served in the military or naval service of the United States in any war, who has attained or shall attain the age of 65 years, and who has been awarded a medal of honor for having in action involving actual conflict with an enemy distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry or intrepidity, at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, and who was honorably discharged from service by muster out, resignation, or otherwise, shall be, by the Secretary of the proper department, entered and recorded on said Roll. (Note: Personnel placed on the retired list of the Navy are considered as members of the Naval Service.) Applications for entry on said roll shall be made in such form and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by the War Department and Navy Department, respectively, and proper blanks and instructions shall be, by the proper Secretary, furnished without charge upon request made by any person claiming the benefits of this act.
It shall be the duty of the Secretary of War and of the Secretary of the Navy to carry this act into effect and to decide whether each applicant, under this act, in his department is entitled to the benefit of this act. If the official award of the Medal of Honor to the applicant, or the official notice to him thereof, shall appear to show that the Medal of Honor was awarded to the applicant for such an act as is required by the provisions of this act, it shall be deemed sufficient to entitle the applicant to such special pension without further investigation. Otherwise all official correspondence, orders, reports, recommendations, requests, and other evidence now on file in any public office or department shall be considered. A certificate of service and of the act of heroism, gallantry, bravery, or intrepidity for which the Medal of Honor was awarded, and of enrollment under this act, and of the right of the special pensioner to be entitled to and to receive the special pension herein
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