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The Organization of Information, Second Edition - Arlene G. Taylor

The Organization of Information, Second Edition

More schools of library and information science now include organizing information as a core course. Encoding standards, metadata standards, and systems continue to evolve, and new ones have been developed. New information organizing concepts have become useful additions to the discussion of organization ofinformation-concepts such as information architecture, knowledge management, portals, and taxonomies.

The goal of this edition remains to enable students, practicing librarians, and others interested in organizing information to understand the theory, principles, standards, and tools behind the organization of information in all types of environments.

Table of Contents

  • List of Figures
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments

1 Organization of Recorded Information

  • The Need to Organize
  • The Nature of Information
  • The Nature of the Organization of Recorded Information
  • Organization of Information in Different Environments
    • Libraries
    • Archives
    • Museums and Art Galleries
    • The Internet
      • Digital Libraries
      • Information Architecture
    • Data Administration
    • Knowledge Management
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings
    • General
    • Organization of Information in Libraries
    • Organization of Information in Archives/Manuscripts
    • Organization of Information in Museums/Art Galleries
    • Organization of Information in the Internet
      • Organization of Information in Digital Libraries
      • Organization of Information in Information Architecture
    • Organization of Information in Data Administration
    • Organization of Information in Knowledge Management

2 Retrieval Tools

  • The Need for Retrieval Tools
  • The Basic Retrieval Tools, Their Formats, and Their Functions
    • Bibliographies
    • Pathfinders
    • Catalogs
      • Purposes of Catalogs
      • Forms of Catalogs
      • Arrangements Within Catalogs
    • Indexes
    • Finding Aids
    • Registers
    • Search Engines and Directories
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

3 Development of the Organization of Recorded Information in Western Civilization

  • Inventories, Bibliographies, Catalogs, and Codification
    • Antiquity
    • Middle Ages
    • European Renaissance
    • From Inventories to Finding Lists to Collocating Devices
    • Period of Codification
  • Twentieth Century
    • Description
    • Subject Access
      • Verbal Subject Access
      • Classification
    • Special Materials
      • Archives
      • Museums and Art Galleries
      • Subject Access to Special Materials
    • Mechanization of Bibliography
      • The Documentation Movement
      • Library Automation
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

4 Encoding Standards

  • Encoding of Characters
  • Encoding of Records (Syntax)
  • Currently Used Examples of Standards for Encoding Records
    • MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging)
      • MARC 21
      • UNIMARC
    • SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
      • XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
      • DTDs (Document Type Definitions) and XML Schemas
  • Frameworks
    • Warwick Framework
    • RDF (Resource Description Framework)
    • METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard)
    • Semantic Web
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

5 Systems and System Design

  • Systems
    • Databases
      • Bibliographic Networks
      • Integrated Library Systems (ILSs)
      • Development of Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs)
  • System Design
    • Organization of Information and System Design
    • Searching Methods
    • Retrieval Models
    • Standardization and Systems
      • Display
      • Basic Search Queries
      • Initial Articles
      • Truncation, Boolean Operators, and Proximity
      • Punctuation
    • Meta-Searching and Z39.50
    • User-Centered System Design
      • Universal Design
      • Multiple Languages/Scripts
      • Other Aids for Users
    • Authority Control Integration
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

6 Metadata

  • The Basics of Metadata
  • Metadata Schemas
  • Metadata Characteristics
  • Metadata and Cataloging
  • Objectives of an Information System
  • Types of Metadata
    • Administrative Metadata
      • Preservation Metadata
      • Rights and Access Metadata
      • Meta-Metadata
    • Structural Metadata
      • Implementations of Structural Metadata
    • Descriptive Metadata
  • Management Tools
    • Application Profiles
    • Metadata Registries
    • Crosswalks
    • Harvesting Tools and Templates
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

7 Metadata: Description

  • Units to Be Described
    • Finite vs. Continuing Resources
    • PRERs Entities
  • Creation of Surrogate Records
    • Bibliographic and General Metadata Schemas
      • ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description)
      • Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, 2002 Revision (AACR2R)
      • The Dublin Core (DC)
      • MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema)
    • Domain-Specific Metadata Schemas
      • ISAD(G) (General International Standard Archival Description)
      • Archival APPM (Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts) Records
      • EAD (Encoded Archival Description)
      • TEl (Text Encoding Initiative) Headers
      • GILS (Government [or Global] Information Locator Service) Records
      • FGDC (Federal Geographic Data Committee) "Jontent Standard for Digital GeosjJatial Metadata
      • VRA (Visual Resources A'isociation) Core Categories for Visual Resources
      • CIMI XML Schema for SPECTRUM
      • ONIX International
    • Other Surrogate Record Types
      • Index Records
      • On-the-Fly Records
  • Environmental Influences in Descriptive Metadata Creation
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

8 Metadata: Access and Authority Control

  • Need for Attention to Access
  • Need for Attention to Bibliographic Relationships
  • Choice of Access Points
    • Primary Access Point
      • Main Entry Controversy
      • Justification for Main Entry
      • AACR2 Principles for Choosing Main Entry
    • Additional Access Points
  • Authority Control
    • Headings for Access Points
      • Principles for Choice of Personal Name
      • Principles for Form of Personal Name
      • Principles for Entry Word and Remaining
      • Structure of Personal Name
      • Principles for Choice of Corporate Name
      • Principles for Entry Word and Form of Heading for Corporate Names
      • Principles for Choice of Uniform Title
      • Principles for Arrangement of Uniform Titles
    • International Authority Control
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

9 Subject Analysis

  • Purpose of Subject Analysis
  • Challenges in Conceptual Analysis
    • Cultural Differences
    • Differences in Methods Used
    • Consistency
    • Nontextual Information
  • Subject Analysis Process
    • Exhaustivity
    • Identification of Concepts
      • Topics Used as Subject Concepts
      • Names Used as Subject Concepts
      • Chronological Elements as Subject Concepts
      • The Concept of Form as Subject
  • Translating Concepts into Index Terms
  • Translating Concepts into Classification Notations
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings

10 Systems for Vocabulary Control

  • Controlled Vocabulary Challenges
    • Specific vs. General Terms
    • Synonymous Concepts
    • Word Form for One-Word Terms
    • Sequence and Form for Multiword Terms and Phrases
    • Homographs and Homophones
    • Qualification of Terms
    • Abbreviations and Acronyms
    • Popular vs. Technical Terms
    • Subdivision of Terms
  • Precoordination vs. Postcoordination
  • General Principles for Creating Controlled Vocabularies
    • Specificity
    • Literary Warrant
    • Direct Entry
  • General Principles for Applying Controlled Vocabulary Terms
    • Specific Entry
    • Number of Terms Assigned
    • Concept Not in Controlled Vocabulary
  • Index Terms for Names
  • Controlled Vocabularies
    • Mechanics of Controlled Vocabularies
    • Subject Heading Lists
      • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
      • Sears List of Subject Headings (Sears)
      • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
    • Thesauri
      • Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)
      • Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors
      • INSPEC Thesaurus
    • Ontologies
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP)
    • Keywords
    • WordNet®
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings
    • LCSH
    • Sears
    • MeSH
    • AAT
    • ERIC
    • Ontologies
    • NLP

11 Systems for Categorization

  • Theory of Categorization
    • Classical Theory of Categories
    • Prototype Theory
  • Bibliographic Classification
    • Hierarchical, Enumerative, and Faceted Classifications
    • Major Bibliographic Classification Schemes
  • Classification Concepts
    • Broad vs. Close Classification
    • Classification of Knowledge vs. Classification of a Particular Collection
    • Integrity of Numbers vs. Keeping Pace With Knowledge
    • Fixed vs. Relative Location
    • Closed vs. Open Stacks
    • Location Device vs. Collocation Device
    • Classification of Serials vs. Alphabetic Order of Serials
    • Classification of Monographic Series (Classified Separately vs. Classified as a Set)
  • Taxonomies
  • Classification on the Internet
  • Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings
    • Classification in General
    • Specific Classification Schemes
      • Dewey Decimal Classification
      • Universal Decimal Classification
      • LC Classification
      • Colon Classification
      • Other Classification Schemes
    • Taxonomies
    • Classification and the Internet
    • Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)

12 Arrangement and Display

  • Arrangement of Physical Information Packages
    • Libraries
    • Archives
  • Arrangement of Intangible Information Packages
  • Arrangement of Surrogates (Metadata)
    • Filing History
    • General Rules for Arrangement
    • Filing/Display Dilemmas
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Suggested Readings
    • Arrangement of Information Packages
      • Libraries
      • Archives
      • Internet
    • Arrangement of Bibliographic/Surrogate Records

 

  • Conclusion
    • Note
  • Appendix: Subject-Analysis Application
  • Glossary
  • Selected Bibliography
  • Index

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

  • 2.1 Sample entry from the printed version of the index Library Uterature & Information Science: 2002
  • 2.2 Short view of Gilliland-Swetland entry from Figure 2.1, as it appears in the online index for Library Literature & Information Science
  • 2.3 Long view of Gilliland-Swetland entry from Figure 2.1, as it appears in the online index for Library Literature & Information Science
  • 2.4 Introductory page for a finding aid found on the Web
  • 4.1 Record in the MARC communications format
  • 4.2 Formatted display of the record in Figure 4.1, as displayed in the Library of Congress Online Catalog
  • 4.3 Formatted display of the record in Figure 4.1, as displayed by OCIJC
  • 4.4 Formatted display of the record in Figure 4.1, as displayed in the technical services version of the Voyager (Endeavor) cataloging subsystem at the University of Pittsburgh
  • 4.5 TEl Lite-encoded record
  • 4.6 HTML-encoded document
  • 4.7 EAD-encoded finding aid
  • 4.8 XML-encoded MARC 21 record
  • 4.9 Part of an ONIX "message"
  • 4.10 Data model for an RDF description
  • 4.11 Example RDF description using Dublin Core and XML
  • 5.1 Schematic representation of Authority File/Bibliographic File linkage
  • 7.1 AACR2 first-level description
  • 7.2 AACR2 second-level description
  • 7.3 AACR2 third-level description
  • 7.4 Dublin Core record
  • 7.5 MODS record
  • 7.6 Typical on-the-fly records
  • 8.1 Example of a main entry card and an abbreviated version of the main entry card
  • 8.2 Metadata record for a work based on another work
  • 8.3 Metadata record for a work that is about another work
  • 8.4 Metadata record for a work that is part of a larger work
  • 8.5 Metadata record for a work that contains a smaller work
  • 8.6 Two metadata records showing two derivations of a work
  • 8.7 Catalog card showing the title placed at the top
  • 8.8 Screen from PITTCat
  • 8.9 An authority record showing the "authoritative" heading for Princess Diana (in bold) and three variant forms of her name
  • 8.10 References necessary in order to connect three names of an organization
  • 8.11 Two metadata records for two works that pull together different groupings of George Eliot's novels
  • 8.12 Authority record for a name that has variants in each of several languages
  • 9.1 Web page table of contents for the proceedings of a conference in which the papers are about many different subtopics of the main theme
  • 9.2 Illustration of the concept that summarization leads to document retrieval and depth indexing leads to information retrieval
  • 10.1 Sample entries from Library of Congress Subject Headings
  • 10.2 Sample authority records for headings shown in Figure 10.1
  • 10.3 Sample entry from Sears List of Subject Headings
  • 10.4 Sample entries from National LibraIY of Medicine, Medical Subject Headings
  • 10.5 Sample entries from Art & Architecture Thesaurus On Line
  • 10.6 Sample entry from Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors
  • 10.7 Sample entry from the INSPEC Thesaurus
  • 10.8 Screen from WordNef19 showing all the "senses" of the term romance
  • 11.1 lllustration of hierarchical arrangement in the Dewey Decimal Classification
  • 11.2 lllustration of the hierarchical and enumerative arrangement of the Library of Congress Classification
  • 11.3 Example of use of Artificial Neural Network principles to provide visual representation of the subject matter in a collection of document")
  • A.1 View of first screen of Robert Cheetham's JGarden: The Japanese Garden Database
  • A.2 First page of the "about" page of the JGarden Web site

Library of Congress Catalog Listing

LC control no.: 2003058904
Type of material: Book (Print, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Personal name: Taylor, Arlene G., 1941-
Main title: The organization of information / Arlene G. Taylor.
Edition: 2nd ed.
Published/Created: Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited, 2004.
Description: xxvii, 417 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
ISBN-10: 1563089769 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 1563089696 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: Information organization.
Metadata.
Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 385-405) and index.
Series: Library and information science text series
LC classification: Z666.5 .T39 2004
Dewey class no.: 025

 


 

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