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A Manual For Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

A Manual For Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

7th Edition | Kate L. Turabian | Chicago Style for Students and Researchers | The University of Chicago Press | 978-0226823379 | 2007

Kate L. Turabian
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
CHICAGO STYLE FOR STUDENTS AND RESEARCHERS
REVISED BY
WAYNE C. BOOTH, GREGORY G. COLOMB, JOSEPH M. WILLIAMS AND THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS EDITORIAL STAFF
7th Edition

REFERENCE
The standard for generations of students and their teachers, revised for a new age

Kate L. Turabian literally wrote the book on the successful completion and submission of the student paper. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, created from her years of experience with research projects across all disciplines, has sold more than eight million copies since it was first published in 1937.

Now, with this seventh edition, Turabian's Manual has undergone its most extensive revision, ensuring that it will remain the most valuable handbook for writers at every level—from first-year undergraduates to dissertation writers submitting final manuscripts. Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams—the gifted team behind The Craft of Research—have combined their expertise with that of the University of Chicago Press editorial staff to remake this classic resource. They preserve Turabian's clear and practical advice while fully embracing the new modes of research, writing, and source citation brought about by the Internet.

More than 8 million copies sold

  • New section by the authors of the bestselling Craft of Research that clearly explains every aspect of the research and writing process
  • Thorough coverage of scholarly citation: standard practices, an expanded array of source types, and hundreds of examples
  • Comprehensive guidelines for proper paper format, as recommended by dissertation offices nationwide
  • Authoritative advice on all matters of style, updated to reflect The Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth edition

Chicago Guides CHICAGO GUIDES TO WRITING, EDITING, AND PUBLISHING
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
WWW.PRESS.UCHICAGO.EDU

SBN-13 978-0-226-82337-9 ISBN-10.0-226-82337-7
$17.00

Contents

  • A Note to Students
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments

Part I Research and Writing: From Planning to Production
Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. CoLomb, and Joseph M. Williams

  • Overview of Part I
  • 1 What Research Is and How Researchers Think about It
  • 1.1 How Researchers Think about Their Aims
  • 1.2 Three Kinds of Questions That Researchers Ask
  • 2 Moving from a Topic to a Question to a Working Hypothesis
  • 2.1 Find a Question in Your Topic
  • 2.2 Propose Some Working Answers
  • 2.3 Build a Storyboard to Plan and Guide Your Work
  • 2.4 Organize a Writing Support Group
  • 3 Finding Useful Sources
  • 3.1 Understand the Kinds of Sources Readers Expect You to Use
  • 3.2 Record Your Sources Fully, Accurately, and Appropriately
  • 3.3 Search for Sources Systematically
  • 3.4 Evaluate Sources for Relevance and Reliability
  • 3.5 Look beyond the Usual Kinds of References
  • 4 Engaging Sources
  • 4.1 Read Generously to Understand, Then Critically to Engage and Evaluate
  • 4.2 Take Notes Systematically
  • 4.3 Take Useful Notes
  • 4.4 Write as You Read
  • 4.5 Review Your Progress
  • 4.6 Manage Moments of Normal Panic
  • 5 Planning Your Argument
  • 5.1 What a Research Argument Is and Is Not
  • 5.2 Build Your Argument around Answers to Readers' Questions
  • 5.3 Turn Your Working Hypothesis into a Claim
  • 5.4 Assemble the Elements of Your Argument
  • 5.5 Distinguish Arguments Based on Evidence from Arguments Based on Warrants
  • 5.6 Assemble an Argument
  • 6 Planning a First Draft
  • 6.1 Avoid Unhelpful Plans
  • 6.2 Create a Plan That Meets Your Readers' Needs
  • 6.3 File Away Leftovers
  • 7 Drafting Your Report
  • 7.1 Draft in the Way That Feels Most Comfortable
  • 7.2 Develop Productive Drafting Habits
  • 7.3 Use Your Key Terms to Keep Yourself on Track
  • 7.4 Quote, Paraphrase, and Summarize Appropriately
  • 7.5 Integrate Quotations into Your Text
  • 7.6 Use Footnotes and Endnotes Judiciously
  • 7.7 Interpret Complex or Detailed Evidence before You Offer It
  • 7.8 Be Open to Surprises
  • 7.9 Guard against Inadvertent Plagiarism
  • 7.10 Guard against Inappropriate Assistance
  • 7.11 Work through Chronic Procrastination and Writer's Block
  • 8 Presenting Evidence in Tables and Figures
  • 8.1 Choose Verbal or Visual Representations
  • 8.2 Choose the Most Effective Graphic
  • 8.3 Design Tables and Figures
  • 8.4 Communicate Data Ethically
  • 9 Revising Your Draft
  • 9.1 Check Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Claim
  • 9.2 Make Sure the Body of Your Report Is Coherent
  • 9.3 Check Your Paragraphs
  • 9.4 Let Your Draft Cool, Then Paraphrase It
  • 10 Writing Your Final Introduction and Conclusion
  • 10.1 Draft Your Final Introduction
  • 10.2 Draft Your Final Conclusion
  • 10.3 Write Your Title Last
  • 11 Revising Sentences
  • 11.1 Focus on the First Seven or Eight Words of a Sentence
  • 11.2 Diagnose What You Read
  • 11.3 Choose the Right Word
  • 11.4 Polish It Off
  • 11.5 Give It Up and Print It Out
  • 12 Learning from Your Returned Paper
  • 12.1 Find General Principles in Specific Comments
  • 12.2 Talk to Your Instructor
  • 13 Presenting Research in Alternative Forums
  • 13.1 Plan Your Oral Presentation
  • 13.2 Design Your Presentation to Be Listened To
  • 13.3 Plan Your Poster Presentation
  • 13.4 Plan Your Conference Proposal
  • 14 On the Spirit of Research

Part II Source Citation

  • 15 General Introduction to Citation Practices
  • 15.1 Reasons for Citing Your Sources
  • 15.2 The Requirements of Citation
  • 15.3 Two Citation Styles
  • 15.4 Citation of Electronic Sources
  • 15.5 Preparation of Citations
  • 15.6 A Word on Citation Software
  • 16 Notes-Bibliography Style: The Basic Form
  • 16.1 Basic Patterns
  • 16.2 Bibliographies
  • 16.3 Notes
  • 16.4 Short Forms for Notes
  • 17 Notes-Bibliography Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources
  • 17.1 Books
  • 17.2 Journal Articles
  • 17.3 Magazine Articles
  • 17.4 Newspaper Articles
  • 17.5 Additional Types of Published Sources
  • 17.6 Unpublished Sources
  • 17.7 Informally Published Electronic Sources
  • 17.8 Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts
  • 17.9 Public Documents
  • 17.10 One Source Quoted in Another
  • 18 Parenthetical Citations-Reference List Style: The Basic Form
  • 18.1 Basic Patterns
  • 18.2 Reference Lists
  • 18.3 Parenthetical Citations
  • 19 Parenthetical Citations-Reference List Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources
  • 19.1 Books
  • 19.2 Journal Articles
  • 19.3 Magazine Articles
  • 19.4 Newspaper Articles
  • 19.5 Additional Types of Published Sources
  • 19.6 Unpublished Sources
  • 19.7 Informally Published Electronic Sources
  • 19.8 Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts
  • 19.9 Public Documents
  • 19.10 One Source Quoted in Another

Part III Style

  • 20 Spelling
  • 20.1 Plurals
  • 20.2 Possessives
  • 20.3 Compounds and Words Formed with Prefixes
  • 20.4 Line Breaks
  • 21 Punctuation
  • 21.1 Period
  • 21.2 Comma
  • 21.3 Semicolon
  • 21.4 Colon
  • 21.5 Question Mark
  • 21.6 Exclamation Point
  • 21.7 Hyphen and Dashes
  • 21.8 Parentheses and Brackets
  • 21.9 Slashes
  • 21.10 Quotation Marks
  • 21.11 Multiple Punctuation Marks
  • 22 Names, Special Terms, and Titles of Works
  • 22.1 Names
  • 22.2 Special Terms
  • 22.3 Titles of Works
  • 23 Numbers
  • 23.1 Words or Numerals?
  • 23.2 Plurals and Punctuation
  • 23.3 Date Systems
  • 23.4 Numbers Used outside the Text
  • 24 Abbreviations
  • 24.1 General Principles
  • 24.2 Names and Titles
  • 24.3 Geographical Terms
  • 24.4 Time and Dates
  • 24.5 Units of Measure
  • 24.6 The Bible and Other Sacred Works
  • 24.7 Abbreviations in Citations and Other Scholarly Contexts
  • 25 Quotations
  • 25.1 Quoting Accurately and Avoiding Plagiarism
  • 25.2 Incorporating Quotations into Your Text
  • 25.3 Modifying Quotations
  • 26 Tables and Figures
  • 26.1 General Issues
  • 26.2 Tables
  • 26.3 Figures

Appendix: Paper Format and Submission

  • A.1 General Format Requirements
  • A.2 Format Requirements for Specific Elements
  • A.3 Submission Requirements
  • Bibliography
  • Authors
  • Index


Portions of this book have been adapted from The Craft of Research, 2nd edition, by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, © 1995, 2003 by The University of Chicago; and from The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, © 1982, 1993, 2003 by The University of Chicago.

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 
The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London 
© 2007 by The University of Chicago
All rights reserved. Published 2007
Printed in the United States of America
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 6789
ISBN-13: 978-0-226-82336-2 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 978-0-226-82337-9 (paper)
ISBN-10: 0-226-82336-9 (cloth) 
ISBN-10: 0-226-82337-7 (paper)

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Turabian, Kate L.

A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago style for
students and researchers / Kate L. Turabian; revised by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press editorial staff. — 7th ed.
p. cm.

"Portions of this book have been adapted from The Craft of Research, 2nd edition, by
Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, © 1995, 2003 by The
University of Chicago; and from The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, © 1982, 1993, 2003 by The University of Chicago."

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN-13: 978-0-226-82336-2 (cloth : alk. paper)
ISBN-13: 978-0-226-82337-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-226-82336-9 (cloth : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-226-82337-7 (pbk. : alk. paper)

1. Dissertations, Academic—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 
2. Academic writing—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title.

LB2369.T8 2007

808.02—dc22

2006025443

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992.

From the Publisher

Dewey. Bellow. Strauss. Friedman. The University of Chicago has been the home of some of the most important thinkers of the modern age. But perhaps no name has been spoken with more respect than Turabian. The dissertation secretary at Chicago for decades, Kate Turabian literally wrote the book on the successful completion and submission of the student paper. Her Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, created from her years of experience with research projects across all fields, has sold more than seven million copies since it was first published in 1937. 

Now, with this seventh edition, Turabian’s Manual has undergone its most extensive revision, ensuring that it will remain the most valuable handbook for writers at every level—from first-year undergraduates, to dissertation writers apprehensively submitting final manuscripts, to senior scholars who may be old hands at research and writing but less familiar with new media citation styles. Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and the late Wayne C. Booth—the gifted team behind The Craft of Research—and the University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff combined their wide-ranging expertise to remake this classic resource. They preserve Turabian’s clear and practical advice while fully embracing the new modes of research, writing, and source citation brought about by the age of the Internet.

Booth, Colomb, and Williams significantly expand the scope of previous editions by creating a guide, generous in length and tone, to the art of research and writing. Growing out of the authors’ best-selling Craft of Research, this new section provides students with an overview of every step of the research and writing process, from formulating the right questions to reading critically to building arguments and revising drafts. This leads naturally to the second part of the Manual for Writers, which offers an authoritative overview of citation practices in scholarly writing, as well as detailed information on the two main citation styles (“notes-bibliography” and “author-date”). This section has been fully revised to reflect the recommendations of the fifteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and to present an expanded array of source types and updated examples, including guidance on citing electronic sources.

The final section of the book treats issues of style—the details that go into making a strong paper. Here writers will find advice on a wide range of topics, including punctuation, table formatting, and use of quotations. The appendix draws together everything writers need to know about formatting research papers, theses, and dissertations and preparing them for submission. This material has been thoroughly vetted by dissertation officials at colleges and universities across the country.

This seventh edition of Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is a classic reference revised for a new age. It is tailored to a new generation of writers using tools its original author could not have imagined—while retaining the clarity and authority that generations of scholars have come to associate with the name Turabian.

About the Authors

Kate Turabian (1893–1987) was the graduate school dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago from 1930 to 1958.

Wayne Clayson Booth (1921-2005) was the George M. Pullman Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in English Language and Literature at the University of Chicago.

Gregory G. Colomb is professor of English at the University of Virginia and the author of Designs on Truth: The Poetics of the Augustan Mock-Epic.

Joseph M. Williams is professor emeritus in the Department of English Language and Literature at the University of Chicago and the author of Style: Toward Clarity and Grace. Together Booth, Colomb, and Williams are the authors of the bestselling guide The Craft of Research, also published by the University of Chicago Press.

Library of Congress Catalog Listing

LC control no.: 2006025443
Type of material: Book (Print, Microform, Electronic, etc.)
Personal name: Turabian, Kate L.
Main title: A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago style for students and researchers / Kate L. Turabian ; revised by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press editorial staff.
Edition: 7th ed.
Published/Created: Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Description: xviii, 466 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
ISBN-13: 9780226823362 (cloth : alk. paper)
9780226823379 (pbk. : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0226823369 (cloth : alk. paper)
0226823377 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Notes: "Portions of this book have been adapted from The Craft of Research, 2nd edition, by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, 1995, 2003 by The University of Chicago; and from The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, 1982, 1993, 2003 by The University of Chicago"--T.p. verso.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 409-435) and index.
Subjects: Dissertations, Academic --Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Academic writing --Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Series: Chicago guides to writing, editing, and publishing
LC classification: LB2369 .T8 2007
Dewey class no.: 808/.02
National bib no.: GBA736259
National bib agency no.: 013744786
Other system no.: (OCoLC)ocm70866962
(OCoLC)70866962
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